Language and Occupation

View mindmap
  • Language and Occupation
    • Workplace Interactions
      • Janet Holmes (2009)
        • Meetings occupy between 25% and 80% of working time
        • identified two styles of leadership, roles and hierarchy interaction
        • "Kenneth"
          • Authoritative leadership
          • Structured and controlled
          • Allocates turns
          • Individual accountability
          • Overt status and power
          • Formal
          • Direct address of participants
        • "Tricia"
          • Facilitating role
          • Encourages participation
          • Likes social discussion and humour
          • Collaborative
          • Consultative
          • Co-operative
          • Covert power and leadership
      • Customer Relations (Eric Friginal, 2009)
        • Staff Language Patters
          • Second person
          • Imperative "let's"
          • Use of brand names
          • Present tense
          • Specialised technical terms
          • Politeness and discourse markers
          • Fewer topic shifts/more focused conversation
          • Limited use of hedges
        • Customer Language Patterns
          • First person
          • Past tense
          • Interrogatives
          • Informal lexis
          • Short responses
        • Workers in customer service are typically trained in the 'correct' company manner
    • Exclusive Language
      • Acronyms and Initialisms
        • Some, such as the NHS and BMW are easily recognisable by the majority of people
        • Some occupational acronyms may be less recognisable to outsiders making them a special lexicon
        • Exclusivity make acronyms powerful by creating a discourse community
      • Jargon
        • Use of jargon can instil a sense of exclusivity
        • Some jargon can be guessed (eg deck, chow hall) but others may be more difficult (eg maggot, salty) so they can also show power
      • Code
        • The use of code in some occupations is another feature of exclusionary language
        • Occupations may use coded tannoy announcements or names to signify certain thins, especially in hospitals to avoid panic
        • Codes signifying specific events of frequently used b the emergenc services, such as for ethnicity or different crimes
        • Coded language relies upon an exclusive shared knowledge creating discourse communities
      • Holmes and Stubbe (2003)
        • Communities of practice
        • Groups who regularly engage with each other...share a repertoire of resource which enables them to communicate in a kind of verbal shorthand
        • They say this is often difficult for outsiders to penetrate
      • Penelope Eckert (2006)
        • Recognised the importance of language use in communities of practice
        • Said it offered an 'accountable link between the individual the group and the place in the broader social order'
        • Spolsky (1998) and Kollataj (2009) say jargon is not stigmatised as a lower form
    • Classroom Discourse
      • Direct and instruct students
      • Gain students' attention
      • Challenge students
      • Dictate how and when students speak
      • Sinclair and Coulthard (1975)
        • Said conversation is led by the teacher
        • IRF structure
        • Direct question, a response, then feedback or evaluation
      • Row (1986)
        • Use of 'wait time; during IRF intitiates a more complex response
        • Encourages students to be more active in learning
      • Dillon (1983)
        • Proposed the collaborative classrooms style characterised by less over teaching power and more discussion
        • Encouraging collaboration
          • 'Convince me'
          • 'Do you agree with what ____ said?'
          • 'Why do you think that?'
          • 'I'm not sure what you mean'
        • Teacher does not rely upon IRF and encourages cross discussion
        • Teacher must establish group discussion rules and control the clssroom for it to be successful
      • Teaching Language
        • Interrogatives
        • Wait time
        • Revoicing
        • IRF discourse structure
        • Discourse markers
        • Politeness markers
        • Naming
        • Imperatives

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Language variation and discourses resources »