Language and Gender Theorists

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  • Language & Gender Theorists
    • Robin Lakoff
      • Hedges- punctuate language with uncertainty.
      • Intensifiers- Avoid strong statements
      • Tag questions- adds uncertainty to a statement so no-one can appose her point of view.
      • Hypercorrect grammar- women are more likely to comply to grammar rules.
      • Womens Work Words- their vocab included trivial words because they are regulated to decisions about unimportant subjects.
    • Zimmerman & West
      • Overlaps - Men overlap with women more. ( 100% of overlaps were male)
      • Interruptions- 98% of interruptions were done by men. Women interupt other women more than they would men.
      • Silences- same sex convo= 1.35 secs Mixed sex convo= 3.21 secs.
    • Deborah Tannen
      • Womens Work Words- men usually asssume role of information giver.
      • Imperatives- men use more imperatives. Used more on sons than daughters.
      • Silences- women see listening and supporting as essential in group bonding.
    • Jennifer Coates
      • Hedges- men hedge less.
      • Tag questions- men use questions to seek information from each other.
      • Minimal responses- men are too late on doing this so shows a lack of interest.
      • Weak expletives- women use 'oh dear' instead of taboo terms.
    • Mira Komarovsky
      • 58 working class USA couples.
      • Women spoke about family matters while men spoke about sport, work and business.
    • Pamela Fishman
      • Women use 3 times as many tags.
      • Women use the hedge 'you know' 5 times as many.
    • Janet Holmes
      • Modal tags - Seek information
      • Faciliative tags - Draw in the listener
      • 61% modal tags were used by men.
      • 75% faciliative tags were used by women.


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