Language and Gender Theorists

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  • Language & Gender Theorist
    • Deborah Tannen
      • proposed the difference model
      • male personality comes first
      • Status vs importance
        • Men concerned with status and independence
      • Independence vs intimacy
      • Advice vs understanding
        • Show support rather than solutions and show understanding by compromise
      • Orders vs proposals
      • Conflict vs compromise
        • Women interested in forming bonds and trying to avoid conflict
      • shows male superiority
        • men seek to achieve the upper hand or prevent others dominating them
      • Talking is a way for women to gain confidence and support in their ideas
    • Don Zimmerman & Candice West
      • in mixed gender conversations men are more likely to interrupt
      • 96% male interruption
      • introduces male dominance
      • 62% of females fell silent after being interrupted
      • only studied up to age 30
    • Robin Lakoff
      • researched the way womens interaction differs from men
      • characteristics of female language
      • more tag questions
      • more empty adjectives such as 'lovely'
      • more hedges 'sort of'
      • Swear less
      • Speak less
      • Use minimal responses to show they are listening
      • Hyper-correct grammar and pronunciation
    • Deborah Jones & Jennifer Coates
      • looked at all female conversations
      • housetalk, scandal, bitching and chatting
      • men will reject topics of conversation introduced by women
      • can be used for theory of dominance and defecit
    • William O'barr & Bowman Atkins
      • conversations between different gender fails
      • language of the courtroom
      • found female lawyers to be assertive and interrupt
      • 30 months
      • speech difference due to power not gender
    • Geoffrey Beattie
      • men interrupted equally to women
      • 10 hours of conversation
      • did not use variables
      • 557 interruptions compared to Zimmerman & West
      • men interrupted more but not enough to be statistically different
    • Pamela Fishman
      • men speak twice as long as women
      • women ask more questions to gain understanding
      • analysed several hours of conversation between 3 white, American, hetero-sexual, middle class couples
      • women ask three times as many questions as men
      • women use supportive minimal noises to show interest
      • topics initiated by women not always taken into conversation
      • Women work hard to keep conversation going
    • Dale Spender
      • male sustain power through speech
      • male is the norm
      • uses research of Zimmerman & West
      • men control language in patriarchal system
      • Language reflects a patriarchal society
      • Male is the basic element of language and the sorting system
    • Deborah Cameron
      • verbal hygeine
        • a way to make sense of language and the symbolic attempt to impose order on the social world
      • proper speech style
      • women socialised to be feminine so language must affect it
      • Women are instructed on how to talk properly

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