Language and Gender Theories

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  • Language and Gender Theories
    • Robin Lakoff
      • 1975
        • Basic assumption about what marks out the language of women
          • Hedge
          • Polite rituals and modality
          • Tag questions
          • Empty Adjectives
          • Use 'wh...' imperitives
          • Speak less frequently, men hold the floor
          • Overuse qualifiers
          • Apologise more
      • Deficit Model
        • Men's language is the normal, women's is deficient to it
          • Women's therefore weak, uncertain
      • Tag Questions
        • Used more by females than males, shows an unassertive mood
      • Taboo
        • Men use stronger expletives
      • Lexis
        • Women use more empty adjectives than men
    • Zimmerman & West
      • Turn Taking and Interruptions
        • Examined two people of the same sex and two people of different sexes
          • Irregularities identified
            • Overlaps
              • Women said to cooperatively more than men
              • Next speaker: anticipates the end of the current speakers turn
            • Interruptions
              • Next speaker starts while current is still speaking
      • Silences
        • Average silence in single sex= 1.35 secs
        • Mixed sex: 3.2 secs
      • Dominance
        • Dale Spencer
        • Language structures allow men to dominate over women
    • Keenan
      • Madagascar
    • Tannen
      • Report and Rapport Talk
        • Report Talk = Men
          • Information
            • Speak in public, avoid failure, speak one at a time
        • Rapport Talk=Women
          • Relationships
            • Women: talk too much, build relations, overlap etc
    • Dale Spencer

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