Language & Gender

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  • Language & Gender
    • Deficit
      • Lakoff (1975)
      • Women have no sense of humour
      • Submissive
        • Society 'conditions' women to be like this!
        • Empty adjectives = avoid specific opinions
        • Euphemisms (polite)
        • Indirect requests (do not want to appear demanding)
        • See more things as offensive, so apologise more
      • Hedges: Express uncertainty
      • Patriarchy
    • Dominance
      • Zimmerman & West
        • Men: 46 Women: 2
      • Beattie
        • Men: 34.1 Women: 33.8
      • Spender: Men made language
        • Women will naturally be at a disadvantage
        • More pejorative terms for women than for men!
      • Women attempt to change the subject more than men, but are less successful
        • Women: 20% success rate
        • Men: 91% success rate
    • Difference
      • Tannen
        • Status VS Support
        • Report & Rapport Talk
      • Specialist Lexis: Used equally, but with different topics
        • e.g. women - colours
        • e.g. men - cars
      • Men & women have different purposes/goals - SO, their language is different
      • Trudgill: Women use velar nasal /nj/ (OVERT)
        • Men use alveolar /n/ (COVERT)
    • O'Barr & Atkins
      • 30 months
      • Powerless Language is influenced by position, not gender
  • Semantic Derogation
    • Lexis seems equal, but it is NOT!
    • Master: A man who has people working for him
    • Mistress
      • Official: Woman in a position of authority
      • Popular: Woman having  a sexual relationship with a married man
    • Bachelor & Spinster, technically, mean the same thing

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