Language and Context Written

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  • Language and Context (Written)
    • Pragmatics
      • Context dependent and covers:
        • The purpose or intention of the speaker or writer and the effect of their contribution on the reader/listener
        • The relationship between the participants and the participants wider contextual knowledge and understanding of the world.
        • The context of the topic and the constraints that apply in the situation.
        • The personality of individual participants.
        • The theories and concepts of conversation and genre.
    • Discourse structure in written text
      • List Instructions: Logical progression of stages, use of imperatives to guide.
      • Problem-Solution: Identifies a problem.
      • Analysis: Breaks down key ideas into constituent parts, explores and evaluates.
      • Narrative: Details a series of events, can be chronological.
    • Text types and structures
      • Discourse is seen as the structures above the level of a sentence.
        • Cohesion and Coherence are the most common concepts in analysing discourse.
          • These link with Labov's narratives.
      • Cohesion deals with how sentences link to each other, how we can tell we're not reading a series of random events and may be grammatically linked by anaphoric reference.
      • Coherence is the effect the text creates, lexically and semantically. Often it is an effect that corresponds to human experience.
    • Syntax
      • The word order in a sentence.
      • The normal word order is SVO. Sometimes, we invert subject and object to create emphasis; A.k.a Fronting.
      • Left branching is when the reader waits with increasing interest as more information is given.
      • Right branching gives you the key information quickly and then elaborates on it.
      • Branching is a kind of sentence patterning.
    • Context in written language
      • Context of immediate situation- who is reading the text and from what position?
      • Context of reception- who were the first readers of the text, how would they have read it?
      • Context of production- who is/was the producer of the text? How and why was it written?
      • Context of text- what Is the genre? What is it about? Does it reflect the writer's individual social experience?
      • Context larger cultural frame of reference- the social, historical, environmental and cultural environment in which the text was written.
      • A readerly, a writerly text, reading and writing position.
        • A readerly text is one where the reader and the author share expectations.
        • A writerly text is one where literary and generic conventions are violated and expectations are flouted.
        • Reading position refers to the fact that we all read from our own experiences.
        • Writing position refers to the individuals desire to be creative within the context of their personal life.
    • Grammar/Syntax
      • This is the structure of combining words together: phrases. clauses and sentences.
      • Sentences can be simple, compound or complex.
      • Syntax covers rules for word order and ways in which different classes of word can be combined.
    • Content and Function words
      • Content words convey meaning.
        • Words such as nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs.

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