Language and Context Spoken

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  • Language and Context (Spoken)
    • The Oppositional View
      • Speech is: loosely structures, grammatically simple, decontextualized, informal, spontaneous, concerned with the present, a dialogue, ephemeral and interpersonal.
      • Writing is: highly structures. grammatically complex, contextualised, formal, planned, concerned with the past and the future, a monologue, objective and durable.
    • Alternatives to the Oppositional VIew
      • The Speech-writing continuum
        • Place texts at different points on a line, according to their linguistic features in relation to their conventional ideas about speech and writing.
      • Radial Structure idea
        • The further away the text is from the centre, the less features of (specific) language there is.
    • Conversation theories
      • Accomodation Theory by Howard Giles 1970.
        • Theorised that we adjust our speech to accommodate the person that we are speaking to and that we do this through convergence and divergence.
      • The Cooperative Principle
        • Theorises that conversation only works because speakers agree to abide by rules and regulations that make conversation work.
      • Grice's four maxims
        • Quantity- say no more or less than is required.
        • Manner- avoid ambiguity and be orderly in your utterances.
        • Relevance- your speech should be relevant to the on going conversation.
        • Quality- be truthful with your speech,
        • Flouting is not adhering to Grice's Maxim's and can effect conversation.
          • Breakdown of conversation.
          • Dissatisfaction from other speaker.
          • Constant flouters are often referred to negativelhy.
        • Implicature is appearing to be breaking Grice's maxims on the surface but its actually giving more detail.
    • Accent, dialect, sociolect and idiolect
      • Overt prestige is conforming to the high status norms and values of society.
      • Covert prestige is conforming to the counter-cultural norms of society.
      • What social factors influence our language?
        • Socio-economic
        • Age
        • Education
        • Occupation
        • Culture/religion
    • Spoken discourse structure
      • Labov's narrative categories
        • 1. Abstract- indication of the narrative beginning.
        • 2.Orientation- the 5W's of the narrative to provide context.
        • 3. Complicating action- the main body providing a range of detail.
        • 4. Resolution- the final events to give the narrative closure.
        • 5. Coda- a sign that the narrative is complete
        • Evaluation- additions to the basic story.
    • Functions of Spoken language
      • Transactional- a verbal exchange where the main emphasis is on getting something done.
      • Referential- utterances that provide information
      • Interactional- where the main emphasis is on maintaining a social relationship between participants.
      • Phatic- utterances that re devoid of content but play an important role in relationships.
      • Expressive- utterances that express speakers feeling/emotion
    • Politeness principle
      • Robyn Lakoff
        • Don't impose to avoid intruding.
        • Give options to avoid making the listener feel abliged
        • Make your receiver feel good.
      • Geoffrey Leech
        • Tact- minimise cost to listener/ maximise cost to speaker.
        • Generosity- minimise benefit to speaker; maximise to listener.
        • Approbation- minimise dispraise to listener
        • Modesty- minimise praise of speaker.
        • Agreement- minimise disagreement.
        • Sympathy- maximise sympathy.
      • Brown and Levinson
        • Positive politeness- being complimentary to the addressee.
        • Negative politeness- found in ways of softening what is being said.
        • Hedging, Pessimism, indicating deference, apologising and impersonalising are all ways of avoiding a FTA.
    • Text message spelling features
      • Deletion, clipping, homophones, phonetic spelling, acronym, emoticons and reduplication.

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