Language theories

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  • Created by: jm6144
  • Created on: 09-03-16 11:26
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  • Language Theories
    • Lakoff
      • Women Hedge
        • e.g. Sort of, kind of, it seems like
      • Women use super polite forms
      • Women speak in italics
      • Women use empty adjectives
      • Womn use hypercorrect grammar and punctuation
      • Women use direct quotes, men rephrase more often
      • Women have a special lexicon
        • e.g. colour
      • Women use question intonation in declaratives
    • Deborah Tannen
      • Male speech = norm women should adapt to
        • Different reactions perplex men
      • Status vs. Support
        • Men gain status through speech
        • Women seek support or consensus
      • Conflict vs. Compromise
        • Men resist vocally
        • Women acceed conversation then complain after
      • independence vs. Intimacy
        • Men have independent focuses in situations
        • Women focus on intimacy and closeness
      • Orders vs. Proposal
        • Men use imperative commands
        • Women make suggestions
      • Information vs. Feeling
        • Men attempt to gain information
        • Women discuss/ comment on feeling
      • Advice vs. Understanding
        • Women use conversation to understand a situation
        • Men use conversation to give advice
    • Dominance Theory
      • Men attempt to gain dominance by giving women limited linguistic freedom
      • Zimmerman and West
        • Men interrupt more frequently
          • 11 mixed 2 partied conversations
            • Men = 96%
            • Women = 4%
        • 11 mixed 2 partied conversations
          • Men = 96%
          • Women = 4%
    • Difference Theory
      • Other than gender, other contexts effect language
      • Jane Alkington 1992
        • Same sex conversations for women were more collaborative
        • Women used more politeness strategies
      • Janet Holmes
        • Tag questions could be an attempt to maintain conversation and politeness rather than to clarify
          • Multi-functional rather than a form of weakness
      • Koenraad Kuipe 1991
        • Men in rugby teams don't appear to save face and use insults.
      • Shultz/ Cameron/ Mills
        • Marked words
        • Mills- Female equality mean promiscuity
      • Jennifer Coats 1989
        • All-female talk is co-operative, offer negotiations and support
        • Wasn't found in mixed-talk. Evidence of differing socio-cultural exprectations
      • Obar
        • Some aspect of women's language appeared in lover classes
        • 'Women's language' became 'powerless language'
    • Other
      • Randall 1987
        • Girls have lengthier contact with 1:! interactions with teachers
          • Boys= 56 seconds Girls= 3 minutes 45 seconds
      • Spender 1982
        • Boys are more frequently involved in teacher instigated conversations
      • Peter Trugilll 1970's
        • Women more likely to you prestige language
        • Men you lower prestige to become covert and appear tough
        • When a word or lexical item has gender associations adding a modifier changes the associations
          • e.g. Nurse / male nurse
      • Fishman 1978
        • Women initiate more topics in mixed-sex conversations
          • Women = 62% Men = 38%
      • Fishman 1990
        • In mixed-sex conversations men speak twice as long
        • Fishman 1980/3
          • Fishman 1978
            • Women initiate more topics in mixed-sex conversations
              • Women = 62% Men = 38%
          • Women used 2.5 times more questions in mixed-talk conversations
          • Other
            • Randall 1987
              • Girls have lengthier contact with 1:! interactions with teachers
                • Boys= 56 seconds Girls= 3 minutes 45 seconds
            • Spender 1982
              • Boys are more frequently involved in teacher instigated conversations
            • Peter Trugilll 1970's
              • Women more likely to you prestige language
              • Men you lower prestige to become covert and appear tough
              • When a word or lexical item has gender associations adding a modifier changes the associations
                • e.g. Nurse / male nurse
            • Fishman 1990
              • In mixed-sex conversations men speak twice as long
              • Fishman 1980/3
                • Women used 2.5 times more questions in mixed-talk conversations

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