Language Change

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  • Langauge Change
    • Old and Early Modern English: 400 - 1700
      • The use of 'v' instead of 'u', 'ss' instead of 's' and 'y' instead of 'i'
      • Inflections - letters that are added to the ends of words e.g. 'e', 'a', 'en' and 'ly' - these are used to make plurals, adjectives, adverbs or change tenses.
      • Unusual spellings - phonteic or devient spellings.
      • Archaisms ( words that are no longer used )
      • Archaic use of recognised words.
      • Capitalisation of common nouns e.g. Death, Dinner.
      • Apostophes replacing the letter 'e'.
      • Inverted sentences
      • The lack of punctuation - longer compound and complex sentences
      • Repeated conjunctions
    • Early Modern English: 1500-1700
      • William Caxton invented the first printing press in 1476 - this began the standardisation of lexis
      • In the 1580's the first guides to spelling were introduced - 8000 words but no definition.
      • Identical copies of texts were produced and people began spelling and saying words the same.
      • In the late 1550's Shakespeare introduced approx 3000 words to the English vocab and also introduced the hypen to link words not usually used together.
      • Early Modern English had what is called the polite and familiar forms of the second person pronoun 'you'.
        • Thou was the familiar form e.g. thou art, hast, dost.
        • Familiar form also added the inflection 'st' e.g. hast, dost (do).
        • Also affected the possesive form e.g. thine (yours) and thy (your).
        • You was the polite form and use to address strangers or superiors.
    • Late Modern English: 1700-Present Day
      • 1755 Samuel Johnson published the first dictionary and it contained definitions and examples of every word in the language - standardising the english language.
      • Increased and more varied punctuation.
      • More informal - differences between spoken and written modes reduced.
      • Neologisms
      • Borrowings
      • Semantic Change
      • More literary devices.
      • Standardised spellings.
    • 19th, 20th and Contemporary English
      • Increased literacy meant people used a wider range of vocba
      • Technical and social changes introduced words e.g. workhouse, factory.
      • More moblie population changed dialects and accents
      • Foregin travel introduced more borrowings
      • Cheaper newspapers expanded vocba
      • Radio and television affected both written and spoken language e.g. 1940's radio would sound different to todays radio show.
      • New technology is the biggest influence
      • E-mail and texts have resulted in shortened vocab and introduced phonetic spellings
      • More spoken communication than written affecting sentence structures and abbreviations

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