Lang Change

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  • Lang Change
    • Lexical Change
      • Borrowing
      • Derivation & Affixation
        • Prefixes
          • class changing
          • class maintaining
        • Suffixes
          • nouns
          • verbs
          • adjectives
          • adverbs
      • Replacement
      • Conversion
      • Back formation
      • Clipping
      • Blending
      • Acronyms
      • Eponym
      • Coinage
    • Semantic Change
      • Broadening/ Generalisation
      • Narrowing/ Specialisation
      • Amelioration
      • Perjoration
      • Metaphor
      • Idioms
      • Euphemism
      • Dysphemism
      • Connotation
      • Obsolete
      • Political Correctness
      • Semantic Shift
      • Slang
    • British Context
      • Grid
        • Gender & Sexuality
        • Class
        • Formality /Informality
        • Materialism
        • Education
        • Employment & economy
        • Age
        • Race
        • Religiom
        • Community/ Individuality
        • Technology & Science
      • Pre exam history
        • Old English 3rd-10th C.
          • Battle of Hastings
        • Middle English 12th-15th C.
          • Chaucer
          • French
        • Early Modern English 15th-17th C.
          • Printing Press
          • Shakespeare
          • Great Vowel Shift
      • Exam Text History
        • Late Modern English 18th- 20th C.
          • Johnson's Dictionary
          • Industrial Revolution
          • British Empire
          • Women
          • WW1
      • A history of Dictionaries
        • Johnson's Dictionary, 1st prestigious.
        • Lowth's Grammar book
        • Grose's Vulgar tongue
        • Oxford English Dictionary
        • Rostens Joys of Yiddish
        • OED online dictionary.
      • Attitudes
        • Prescriptivist/ descriptivist
        • Diachronic/ synchronic change
        • 14th C. monk claimed English was strange
        • 18th C. rules were admired
          • Swift urged formation of academy to regulate lang use.
        • Donald MacKinnon
        • Jean Aitchison
      • English as a world lang
        • Diversity
        • Due to invasion, travelling & trade
        • Pros/Cons of a world lang
      • Modern Development
        • Technology
        • Media
        • Fashion
    • Grammatical Change
      • Orthography
        • Due to phonological change, standardisation & technology
      • CAPITALISATION
        • 18th C. Swift & Dryden implemented rule for capitalisation
      • Punctuation
        • pre 18th C.-Oblique Strokes / virgule used to replace commas, now revived for new tech.
          • Colons & semi colons common feature = sentence complexity
            • Speech marks used but slightly differently.
        • 19th C.- pointing still in use. Colons & semi colons used less, brackets used (for aside)
        • 20th C.- Frequent use of non standard punctuation, use of numerals to represent words, abbreviations & use of ampersand.
      • 18th C.- Formal style, complex sentences, long 's' left over from Old Eng replaced around 1800.
        • Influences: standardisation, ararchial/ formal society, writing valued as separate from speech.
      • 19th C.- formality still evident, sentences less complex, spelling consistent
        • Influences: standardisation, availability of Dictionaries, changes in class attitudes, universal education
      • 20th C.- simpler sentences, more minor/simple sentences, non-standard spelling & punctuation
        • Influences: American/world wide Eng, tech, equality, oral lang empahasis, growing informality, growth of leisure & entertainment.
      • Interrogative Mood: historically asked questions by inverting verb & subject, now requires use of an auxiliary verb.
      • Negation: Early Modern Eng used 'not', now often requires auxiliary verb, in formal Eng not attaches itself to auxiliary but this is rare & we usually use n't.
      • Forming Plurals: Old Eng many ways of forming plurals, decreased in Middle Eng, in Modern Eng just 2 ways: adding -s or -n.
        • Grammar gradually neatened although some previous forms still exist
      • Verbs: Old Eng 3 verbs 1)irregular 2)stron 3)weak. Modern Eng weak is now most common, regular verbs. Only a few hundred irregular ones remain.
        • Verbs neaten- children often make error of forming regular past tense with irregular verbs.
      • Slow compared to lexical change. Greater resistence to it as it is more rooted into lang.
      • Persuasive Media: introduce greater use of pronouns as synthetic personalisation (Fairclough) results in more conversational tone as it is more effective.
    • Phonological Change
      • Omission
      • Assimilation
      • Informalisation
      • Eye Dialect
      • RP
      • Estuary English
        • Glottal Stops, L Vocalisation, Yod Coalescence
      • Due to Ease of articulation, social change, context, media, American English, other langs.
      • Downward/ Upward Convergence/ Divergence
      • Fairclough: conversationalisation
      • Freeborn: 3 reasons for - attitudes: ugliness, incorrectness & impreciseness
      • Jean Autchison: 3 metaphors.
    • Changes in Pragmatics
      • Howard Giles Accommodation Theory
    • Graphological
      • Space, shape, font, colour, image, size
      • Due to technology, printing press, computers, obile, internet

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