Land ownership between 1950 and 1957

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  • Land ownership between 1949 and 1957
    • Redistribution of land
      • Land reform meant redistribution, not lower rents or low interest loans.
      • The PLA played a big role crushing people who opposed the new Agrarian Law. They also helped Party officials organise work teams
        • PLA organised the meetings that labelled people.
    • Landlordism
      • The 1950 Agrarian Reform Law laid the legal framework for the eradication of the exploitation of the 'landlord class'
      • By the end of 1951, 10 million landlords had lost their land and 40% of the land had changed hands. 700,000 had died also
    • Agricultural co-operation
      • The party didn't want the peasants to become the new class of landowners so  moves towards collectivisation quickly began.
      • From 1951 families were encouraged to join Mutual Aid Teams (MATs), where they could pool their resources.
        • In 1952, successful MATs were encouraged to form APCs.
    • Voluntary to enforced collectivisation
      • Only 14% of households were in the APC system by 1955. Mao was frustrated by this.
      • In 1954, peasants started selling food as they would under capitalism.
      • In Jan 1955, the APC development cam to a halt for 18 months.
      • In July 1955, Mao decide to go for full-out collectivisation. By Jan 1956, 75 million households were in the APC system from 17 million in July 1955.
      • The reason was because Mao feared that the supplies to the cities would continue to be unreliable as long as peasants owned the land.
      • Most new APCs were classified as HPCs. In HPCs profits were shared out based on the labour you contributed.
      • In ideological terms, collectivisation was a success. The state owned the land on which 90% of the population worked.
      • However the peasants now had an unequal relationship with the CCP as they felt they were servants of the party.
      • Food production increased by only 3.8% per annum. This was insufficient to feed the growing industrial workforce. The situation wasn't helped by a lack of state investment


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