Lakoff's Politeness Principles

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  • Lakoff's Politeness Principles (1973)
    • Robin Lakoff
      • Professor of linguistics at the University of California
      • 1975 book Language and Woman's Place is often credited with establishing language and gender as an object study in linguistics
      • Developed the Politeness Principles in 1973.
        • She believed there were three rules to be used in conversation to ensure it is co-operative and successful.
    • DO NOT IMPOSE
      • Otherwise known as negative politeness.
      • Can be demonstrated through hedging
        • "Uh,"
        • "Er..."
        • "Um..."
      • Examples like...
        • "Could you maybe?"
        • "Could you perhaps?"
        • "Might it be possible to?"
      • Apologetic phrases are common
        • "I'm sorry to bother you..."
        • "I apologise that this is such short notice..."
    • GIVE OPTIONS
      • Do not take complete control, let the other person have a choice.
      • "It's up to you."
      • "Do you want to go first?"
      • "What would you rather do?"
      • Makes the receiver feel that they and their opinion is valued.
    • MAKE THE RECEIVER FEEL GOOD
      • This is positive politeness to an extent.
      • Make sure that the receiver feel valued for who they are.
      • Helps the receiver to feel like the conversation is more balanced.
      • "I would really appreciate your opinion."
      • "What would I do without you?"

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