Lakoff's gender theory

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  • Lakoff (1975)
    • Hedging
      • "sort of"
      • "kind of"
      • "it seems like"
    • (super) polite expressions
      • "would you mind..."
      • "I'd appreciate it if..."
    • Tag questions
      • "You're coming, aren't you?"
    • Vocal italics (intonational emphasis)
      • "that's VERY bad"
      • "it was QUITE good"
    • Empty adjectives
      • divine
      • lovely
      • adorable
    • Hypercorrect grammar
    • Direct quotation: men more likely to paraphrase
    • Special feminine lexicon
      • women have more words for colours
      • men have more words for sports
    • Question intonation in declarative statements
      • expresses uncertainty
      • "you went to Eton?"
    • Wh- imperatives
      • "why don't we do this?"
      • "why don't you open the door?"
    • Women speak less frequently than men
    • Apologise more
      • "I'm sorry, but I think..."
    • Modal constructions
      • can
      • would
      • should
      • "Should we turn up the heating?"
      • "Can you come with me?"
    • Avoid coarse language and expletives
    • Indirect commands and requests
      • "My, isn't it cold in here?" is really asking to turn up heating
    • More intensifiers
      • so
      • very

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