Labour Laws

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  • Labour Market
    • Right to equality in terms of pay
      • From European Legislation and Equality act 2010
      • Men and women should have equal pay for equal work
    • Minimum wage
      • From 16 years old (school leavers age)
      • Entitled to minimum wage
        • Agricultural workers
        • Apprentices
      • Not entitled to minimum wage
        • Self employed
        • Armed forces
        • Company directors
        • Members on a government employment program
        • Volunteers
        • Employees under school leaving age (16)
        • Students on work placement up to one year
      • Under 18 £4.20
        • in 2019 will be £4.35
      • 18 - 20 £5.90
        • in 2019 will be £6.15
      • 21-24 £7.38
        • In 2019 will be £7.70
      • over 25 £7.83
        • In 2019 will be £8.21
      • Business that have minimal effect by wage legislations
        • Charity shops - like the British Heart Foundation - mostly have volunteers as they are not entitled to minimum wage
      • Businesses affected by minimum wage
        • Fast food restaurants like McDonalds as they have many young employees so they may have to change wages often and often pay minimum wage
    • National living wage
      • Must be 25 or over
      • £7.83
    • Discrimination laws
      • examples of the ground discrimination may be on;  gender, sexual orientation, race, disability, marriage or civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity leave, gender reassignment, nationality, colour, religion or belief or age.
      • Direct discrimination - one employee treated less favourably than another based on any of the example grounds.
      • Indirect discrimination - an employer imposes a particular requirement or practice on all employees that may unnecessarily disadvantage a certain group (requiring to be clean shaven may disadvantage certain religious groups.)
      • Harassment - offensive or intimidating behaviour which aims to humiliate, degrade, undermine the target and violate their dignity
      • Victimisation- when someone is treated less favourably than others because they have made a complaint or allegation concerned with discrimination
    • 5 main employee rights
      • The right to a workplace free of discrimination
      • The right to a workplace free of sexual harassment
      • The right to reasonable accommodation for disabilities
      • The right to compensation for work performed
      • The right to protection from employer retaliation
    • Trade Unions
      • Provide support and advice and campaign for better conditions and pay
      • negotiate pay and working conditions
      • make sure that the health and safety of workers is protected
      • Help enforce a minimum wage
      • abolition of child labour
    • Competition policy in the UK
      • Main aims
        • Promote competition; make markets work better and contribute towards improved efficiency in individual markets and enhanced competitiveness of UK businesses within the European Union (EU) single market.
      • Antitrust & cartels: elimination of agreements that restrict competition i.e. price-fixing and other abuses by firms who hold a dominant market position (market share more than 40%)
      • Market liberalisation: Liberalisation involves introducing competition in previously monopolistic sectors such as energy supply, retail banking, postal services, mobile telecommunications and air transport
      • State aid control: Competition policy analyses state aid measures  business that need to go on (necessities like royal mail) receive support in a way that is not anti-competitive
      • Merger control: control of mergers and take-overs between firms (stops a merger between two large groups which would result in their dominating the market)
      • Anti-competitive behaviour
        • collusion - firms cooperate for mutual benefit - i.e. influence production levels, price to stop competition
        • A complex monopoly exists if at least one quarter (25%) of the market is in the hands of one or a group of suppliers who, deliberately or not, act in a way designed to reduce competitive pressures within a market
        • Patent misuse- buys a patent that is fundamental to production of a product (i.e a robot) and then refuses to license it to any competitors in an attempt to take over the entire industry.
      • CMA
        • Competition and Markets Authority
        • Regulatory body for business competition in the UK
        • Recently approved BT's merger with EE after 6 months
      • Regulatory bodies examples
        • Charity Commission- register and regulate charities in England and Wales, to ensure that the public can support charities with confidence.
        • The Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) is the prudential regulator of around 1,500 banks, building societies, credit unions, insurers and major investment firms

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