Labelling Theory and Crime

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  • Labelling Theory
    • Becker
      • A deviant= someone to whom the label is successfully applied
      • Moral entrepreneurs lead crusade to change laws
      • New laws lead to; creation of new outsiders, expansion of social control
    • Piliavin and Briar
      • Police decision to arrest youths based off physical cues
      • Usually gender, class and ethnicity
      • Time and place of crime effect decision
    • Cicourel
      • Police officers create typifications, creating class bias
      • Working class areas fit typifications, made more arrests therefore confirming streotypes
      • Justice is negotiable
    • Lemert
      • Primary and secondary deviance
      • Primary deviance- acts that aren't publicly labelled
      • Secondary deviance- result of societal reaction, criminal is publicly labelled
        • Leads to control of people's identity and a self fulfilling prophecy
    • Cohen
      • Attempt to control crime worsens it, in a cycle
      • Folk Devils and Moral Panic
        • Media exaggerated crime, calling for a crackdown
        • Created upward spiral of deviance amplification
    • Braithwaite
      • Positive function of labelling= shaming
      • Disintergrative shaming excludes criminal
      • Reintegrative shaming encourages forgiveness

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