L10 - Mali

  • Created by: Hadley023
  • Created on: 16-04-19 15:13
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  • Mali
    • Challenges to sovereignty and territorial integrity
      • In 2013, Malian interim authorities requested the assistance of France to defend Mali’s sovereignty and restore territorial integrity as rebel groups threatened the south.
      • International boundaries delineated by European colonial powers in the early 20th Century.
      • Tuareg declared independencefor Azawad, which contains many ethnic groups.
      • Fighting in the north to control routes for both illegal trade and smuggling.
        • Flows of goods and products that may help or hinder conflict.
      • Ineffective state governance of the north, which has been marginalised and neglected from Bamako.
      • Many other significant ethnic groups - Songhai are prominent in Gao region.
    • Internally displaced people
      • MNLA are a Tuareg group who want an independent state.
      • Ansar Dine, MUJAO and AQIM are Islamic Jihadist groups who took advantage of the country’s instability.
      • Food security crisis is a driving force, further exacerbated by harsh north climate.
    • Global governance strategies
      • Aim to sustain the global system of sovereign nation-states by restoring and maintain Malian sovereignty and TI.
      • MINUSMA established in 2013 by the UN.
    • NGOs in Mali
      • Population Services International: Reproductive Health Projects.
      • Care: Food security and poverty alleviation.
      • World Education Mali: adressing education barriers to literacy.
      • Solidarites International: water, hygiene, sanitation and food security in the northern settlements of Timbuktu, Kidal and GAO and Koulikoro in the south.
    • Peace Agreement 2015
      • Coordination of Movements for Azawad (CMA) officially signed a peace agreement in June 2015.
      • The Tuareg and Arab led rebels signed the agreement under huge international pressure.
      • CMA did not want to be seen as the ‘enemy of peace’.
      • Focuses on short-term security - disarmament, demolition and reintegration.
      • There was still distrust between signatories.


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