King's Great Matter

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  • King's Great Matter
    • Reasons
      • Succession. Henry's marriage hadn't produced any children apart from Mary and Henry needed a son to continue to line
      • Catherine's age: Catherine was too old to produce a child.
      • Mary was seen as illegitimate to some people as Henry's marriage was being made to look invalid.
        • Charles V and Francis I had both had doubts over her legitimacy and called off their engagement
      • Henry claimed that his marriage had been invalid due to Catherine's marriage to Arthur
        • Leveticus
      • Henry was in love with Anne Boleyn and hoped she could provide a son
    • The Strategy
      • Wolsey's Secret Court: May 1527. Held at Westminster and Archbishop Warham was called to prove Henry's marriage was invalid
        • It was abandoned after the Sack of Rome
      • Catherine burst into tears and denied there was an impediment on her marriage. She informed her nephew Charles V.
      • Wolsey tried to get himself named the 'Acting Pope' which needed the support of the French Cardinals
        • In July 1527 he set off to France and tried to set up Henry with a French princess but his scheme failed
      • Wolsey's case
        • The dispensation was flawed if Catherine was a virgin as it was made on the basis the marriage was consumated
        • Blamed it on the papacy
        • Flaw: the dispensation could be rewrited to allow the current marriage
      • Blackfriars court May 1529
        • Judges were Cardinal Campeggio and Wolsey
        • Catherine refused to live in a nunnery
        • Catherine produced a Spanish version of the Papal dispensation which different from the English one
        • Catherine refused to attend the court
        • The court was suspended and Wolsey was suspended
    • Weaknesses of Henry's argument
      • Leviticus said that a marriage between the brothers widow and the brother could never produce a child but there was Mary
        • Henry slept with Anne's sister Mary
      • Deuteronomy
        • a man can marry his brothers widow and looks after his sons
    • The Pope's Solution
      • He would legitimise Henry's illegitimate children
      • He would sanction a marriage between Henry Fitzroy and Mary
    • Reasons for lack of progress in 1529
      • Sir Thomas More replaced Wolsey and Chancellor in October
      • it was the responsibility of the Chancellor to represent the king in the house of commons
      • STM apposed annulment
      • Henry promised STM he needn't have involvement in the annulment
    • Role of Thomas Cromwell
      • 1530: Cromwell was appointed to the royal council
      • Cromwell was a supporter of Royal Supremacy
      • He used his position to push the Royal Supremacy through parliament
    • Submission of the Clergy
      • Key ideas
        • Sinners should be punished by the state not the church
        • Princes must take the reform of the church into his own hands
        • the king should be in charge of the church in his own country
      • Cranmer's Solution
        • Find seven universities which agreed with his ideas
        • Compiled a collection of old English manuscripts
      • The fining of the Clergy 1531
        • The whole Clergy where charged with treason on Jan 1531.
        • They were told they could avoid the charge if they: Paid £100,000 and gave Henry the title 'Supreme Head of the Church as far as Christ allows'
      • The Supplication of the Ordinaries, 1532
        • The house of commons petitioned the king to take action against clerics who abused their legal powers
        • Henry demanded that all future canon laws would require consent of the monacrch and canon law the contradicted the monarch must be annuled
      • Submission of the Clergy, May 1532
        • The English Church was placed under royal control and Thomas More resigned
    • Break with Rome
      • passing of statute laws which gave the king great powers
      • Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates, 1532
        • End the payment of Annates to the Papacy
        • Bishops can be consecrated by English authority
      • Act in Restraint of Appeals, 1533
        • Anne fell pregnant in December 1533 and they were married.
        • all legal cases should be settled in England
        • There was no right of appeal to Rome
        • The king was the supreme authority
    • Act of Succession, 1534
      • Henry's only children were those by Anne Boleyn
      • Princess Mary was illegitimate
      • all subjects took an act to swear their agreement with the act
        • denying the act would result in death
    • Anne Boleyn
      • Fish: clericals had avoided the kings justice by having their own courts
      • Tyndale: Early Christian kings had controlled the church
      • St Germain: Had the right to govern the church in his kingdom

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