King John's Relationships with Wales, Scotland and Ireland

Brief Summary of King John's relationships with Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

Refers to AQA, A2 History

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  • King John's Relationships with Wales, Scotland and Ireland
    • Wales
      • When Rhys ap Gruffund died in 1197, all the alliances Henry II had established fell apart.
      • Llewelyn ap Iowerth emerged as the principal leader of Gwynedd and expanded his powers during the 1215-17 Baronial Rebellions against John.
      • In 1218, John secured his DOMINANCE with a treaty with the English government
        • Dominance maintained until 1240
    • Scotland
      • King William was able to free himself from the humiliating 1174 treaty on the death of Henry II.
      • Richard, eager for cash for the crusade, released William from the agreement in return for an oath of loyalty and £6500 (Quit Claim of Canterbury)
      • Under John, William failed to regain Northumbria and was forced to hand over large amounts of cash and two of his daughters for marriage.
      • William's son, Alexander II, exacted revege on John in 1215-17, marching as far South as Dover! IN 1217, peace was secured for decades when Alexander did homage to John.
    • Ireland
      • Henry II had made plans for his youngest son, John, intending to make him King of Ireland
      • In 1185, when John was 17, he led an expedition to Ireland. It was a DISASTER
        • Soldiers were unpaid, the Irish were offended by Anglo-Norman behaviour (they apparently mocked their beards!)
        • As a result, John never became King of Ireland.
      • 1199 Succession
        • John became 'King of England and Lord of Ireland'
          • This title remained untl the reign of Henry VIII
      • In 1210, John led an army into Ireland for a far more SUCCESSFUL expedition
        • Rooted out treacherous barons and secured the submission of many native Irish Kings


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