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  • Kinetics
    • Collision theory
      • Reactions can only occur when collisions take place
      • Particles must have the required energy for a reaction to take place when they collide
        • Activation energy- minimum energy needed for particles to collide sucessfully
        • To break the bonds
    • Maxwell Boltzmann distribution
      • Shows the spread of energies that molecules have at a particular temperature
        • Area under the curve represents the number of particles
      • Starts at 0 because no molecules have no energy
      • A few particles have low energy because collisions can slow them down.
      • Most probable energy is the peak
        • Emp
        • Not the mean energy
          • To the right of the Emp
      • Never meets the x axis because there is no maximum energy for molecules
    • Increasing the temperature
      • As the temperature increases the particles have more energy
        • Collide more frequently
        • More particles collide with the required activation energy
      • Distribution shifts to the right in the MBD graph
        • Emp and mean energy both shift right
        • Total area under the curve remains the same
          • Same number of particles
      • Wider range of energies than lower temperatures
        • Bigger proportion of particles than the activation energy
          • Frequency of successful collisions increases
    • Increasing the concentration/pressure
      • More particles per unit volume
        • Particles collide more frequently
        • Higher frequency of successful collisions
        • Doubling concentration/rate would mean double the number of particles per unit volume
      • Peak (Emp) stays at the same point but the curve is higher
        • Greater area under curve because there is more particles
    • Adding a catalyst
      • Increases the rate of reaction by offering an alternative route with a lower activation energy
      • Activation energy is lower so more particles will have that energy
        • Higher frequency of sucessful collisions
        • Activation energy
    • Increasing surface area
      • Causes collisions to occur more frequently
      • Incrases the rate of reactions
      • Make it smaller


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