Physics P2 Kinetic Energy

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  • Kinetic Energy
    • Forces and Energy
      • Work done and energy transferred are measured in joules, J.
        • Work is done whenever a force moves something.
          • Eg. Walking up stairs, lifting objects
      • Power is a measure on how quickly work is being done.
        • Work done and energy transferred are measured in joules, J.
          • Work is done whenever a force moves something.
            • Eg. Walking up stairs, lifting objects
        • P=E/t (P is the power in watts, E is work done and t is time taken.
      • W=F*d ( W is work done in joules, F is th eforce in newtons and d is the distance moved in the direction of the force)
    • Gravitational Potential Energy
      • On earth there is always the force of gravity acting on us.
      • The amount of gravitiational potential energy depends on:
        • Height above ground
        • Mass
      • If an object is lifted work is done against gravitational force so it gains energy.
      • Ep=m*g*h (Ep is the change in gravitational potential energy, mis the mass, g is gravitational field strength and h is the change in height)
    • Kinetic Energy
      • All moving objects have kinetic energy. The amount depends on
        • Speed
        • Mass
      • Ek=0.5*m*v^2 (Ek is the kinetic energy in joules, m is the mass in kg and v is velocity in metres per second
    • Transferring Kinetic Energy
      • The pendulum is a machine that converts gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy, and vice versa.
      • When the bob is at the highest point in the swing it has no kinetic energy but a maximum gravitational potential energy
      • As the bob swings downward, gravitational potential energy is transferred to kinetic energy and the bob accelerates
      • However some energy is transferred to heat and becomes lower at each swing
    • Momentum
      • A change in momentum occurswhen a force is applied to a object which can move or is moving.
      • It is difficult to change the direction of a object with a lot of momentum
      • P=m*v (p is the momentum in kilograms metres per second, m is mass in kilograme and v is velocity in m/s)
      • Momentum depends on the direction of travel, so the momentum will change
        • the object sppeds up or slows down
        • the object changes direction
      • Conservation of momentum means that energy can never be lost or destroyed

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