Kidney Structure

  • Created by: danpurdy1
  • Created on: 12-09-17 22:16
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  • Kidney Structure mindmap by Daniel Purdy
    • Mammals have two kidneys
      • Found at the back of the abdominal cavity (one each side of the spinal cord)
    • Mammalian kidney made up of:
      • Fibrous capsule
        • An outer membrane that protects the kidney
      • Cortex
        • A lighter coloured outer region made up of renal (Bowman's) capsules
        • Contains nephrons
      • Medulla
        • A darker coloured inner region made up of loops of Henle
        • Contains nephrons
      • Renal pelvis
        • A funnel-shaped cavity that collects urine into the ureter
      • Ureter
        • A tube that carries urine to the bladder
      • Renal artery
        • Supplies kidney with blood from the heart via the aorta
      • Renal vein
        • Returns blood to the heart via the vena cava
    • Structure of the nephron
      • The functional unit of the kidney
      • Narrow tube which is closed at one end up to 14mm long
        • Two twisted regions separated by a long hairpin loop
      • Each nephron is made up of:
        • Renal (Bowman's capsule)?
          • It is cup-shaped and surrounds a mass of blood capillaries known as the glomerulus
            • The inner layer is made up of specialised cells called podocytes
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
          • A series of loops surrounded by blood capillaires
            • Walls made up of epithelial cells which have microvilli
        • Loop of Henle
          • A long, hairpin loop which is surrounded by blood capillaries
        • Distal convoluted tubule
          • A series of loops surrounded by blood capillaries
          • Walls made up of epithelial cells
        • Collecting duct
          • A tube which allows nephrons to empty
          • Lined epithelial cells
    • Number of blood vessels associated with each nephron
      • Afferent arteriole
        • A tiny vessel and supplies the nephron with blood
      • Glomerulus
        • Branched knot of capillaries
      • Efferent arteriole
        • A tiny vessel that leaves the renal capsule
      • Blood capillaries
        • They reabsorb mineral salts, glucose and water
        • A complex network of capillaries surround the kidney


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