Kidney Stones

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  • Kidney Stones
    • Symptoms
      • severe pain in groin or abdomen
      • persistent ache in lower back
      • feeling restless
      • nausea
      • needing to urinate more than usual
      • pain when urinating
      • blood in urine
    • Causes
      • waste products in blood may form crystals, that collect in the kidneys
      • calcium build-up
      • greater risk if they run in your family and if you've had a kidney infection before
      • certain medical conditions: hypercalciuria, metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, gout, cystitis
    • Diagnosis
      • CLINICAL EXAMINATION
        • GP  can diagnose from symptoms and medical history
      • URINE TEST
        • to check for infection (using a dipstick)
        • dipsticks indicate the presence of protein (sign of kidney damage)
      • BLOOD TEST
        • check correct functioning of the kidneys and to check the levels of substances in the kidneys
        • dipsticks indicate the presence of sugar in the blood (infection)
      • CT SCAN
        • series of x-rays of body at different angles and can identify an abnormality in the kidneys
      • ULTRASOUND SCAN
        • uses high frequency sound waves to create image of the  inside of the body
      • X-RAY
        • uses high energy radiation to show any abnormalities in body tissue
    • Treatment
      • painkillers given for severe pain
      • medication given to treat symptom of nausea
      • increase fluid intake and eat a low protein diet
      • URETHROSCOPY
        • fibre optic instrument if passed up the urethra to the bladder, then into the kidneys, where a stone can be removed whole or broken into small fragments to be passed out in urine
      • SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY
        • patient is immersed in a tank of water and an ultrasound probe is used to blast the calculi 'in situ'
    • Lifestyle Effects
      • increased knowledge about kidney stones
      • side effects from drugs
      • frustration, stress
      • low self-esteem
      • embarrassment of symptoms

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