Key Approcahes in Psychology

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  • Key Approaches
    • Psychodynamic
      • Assumptions
    • Cognitive
      • Assumptions
    • Social Learning theory
      • Assumptions
        • Environment is responsible for our behaviour and that we learn through observaion expectation. We also learn through reinforcement and it considers cognitive processes as important.
      • Social learning theory proposes that we learn by watching other s and as a result internalise the behaviour. For example we may leanr through guided participation
      • Whe can learn through observation this is when we watch and then take part in attention, retention, motivation and reproduction. Expectation behaviour is another way in which we learn and this is said to be whe we belive that if someone else gained a response for a behaviour we will also.
      • Attention retention, motivation and reproduction can be explained by using the xample of baking a cake.
        • Vygotsky supports slt.
    • Behaviourist
      • Learned though reinforcement and association
      • operant and clasical conditioning
        • Operant conditioning is when we learn though reinforcement positive or negative as whown by skinners rats.
    • Biological
      • Assumptions
        • Genes
          • It is said that genes could be the the cause of behaviour. What I mean by this is that characteristics are passed on as well as certain characteristics.
            • Genetic examples and applications could be schizophrenia and mood disorders. The best way to study genetics is to look at twin studies with mono and di zygotic twins and compare concordance. Then you could also do adoption studies to sepearte genes from the environment.
        • Hormones
          • It is said that behaviour could be a result of certain behaviours for example muscle movement. One hormone that could be said to be responsible for our behaviour is adrenaline and this relates to the fight or flight response.
            • The fight or Flight response alows us to relate hormones to behaviour. This is because it is said that adrenaline is reeased and in turn this means that certain behaviours occur as a result. Such as inhibition of the gut and pupil dilation
              • Receptors detect the stimulus. This then results in the receptors informing the brain and the brain informing the adrenal cortexthrough the sympathetic nerves (cerebrum) and as a result he effectors begin to work.
          • Hormones have had applications in psychology interms of behaviour. This is because seratonin and dopamine have been linked to mood disorders and schizophrenia. DDopamine in excess is said to cause schizophrenia and too much seratonin is said to cause bipolar and too little seratonin is said to cause unipolar depression.
        • Evoloution
          • It is said that evoloution could be the responsible for our behaviour and this could be a result of natural selection. This means that the best behaviours have survived and out done the weaker behaviours to allow us to survive and live. An example of natural selection would be for us to become defensive when it comes to food and learning how to cook and use new devices that will soon replace others.
      • Strengths of the biological approach: Supports the nature side of the debate. The biological approach has also been shown to find high concordance. The studies are usually lab and therefore more scientific and results more valid. Another strength is that it has applications in psychology.
      • Limitations of the biological approach is that it is deterministic, ignores nurture, the explanation is also reductionist. No individual gene has been found either which has major flaws. Another limitation is that it does not support free will and it also presents ethical issues as designer babies could be a result of genetic testing in an aim to banish schizophrenia. ect.
      • You could also talk about extremes and how interactionist is now the preffered method.
    • Eclectic Approach
    • Untitled
    • Humanistic
  • Untitled


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