Key turning points in reforming the military

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  • Key turning points in reforming the military
    • Cardwell 1868-74
      • Banning of punishments
        • Peacetime flogging and branding abolished 1868
          • Attracted more recruits
          • Increased morale
      • Abolition of Purchases 1871
        • Increased meritocracy and decreased incompetency
        • Officers still upper class due to costs of living
      • Reduced service times
        • 7 years abroad, 5 years home
        • Attracted more recruits
        • Reduced elopement
      • Regulation of Forces Act 1871
        • Counties in control of armed forces
        • Meant supplies co-ordinated more easily and each county had a battalion for home defence
      • Impact
    • Fisher 1904-10
      • Officer training specialised
      • Naval crew target practice
      • Took slower ships out of service and built new ones
      • Supported submarine production, but the admiralty and public pressure forced Dreadnought building
      • Created a reserve force of volunteer sailors
      • Created the Royal Fleet Auxiliary to supply ships
      • Brought ships closer to home to prepare for war with Germany
      • In control at the time of the naval race-oversaw Dreadnought production
    • Haldane 1905-1912
      • Reasons for reform
        • Bright red uniforms made men easy targets for longer-range guns
        • Supply and equipment inefficiency after the Royal Waggon Train was abandoned
        • Had to resort to dirty tactics in the Boer War which brought international shame
      • BEF and Territorials
        • Budget limited size of BEF, but it was the biggest army Britain had ever created
        • Better force coordination and improvement to
        • Abandoned surplus and outdated units to centralise control and reduce costs
        • Abolition of the militia brought all home units under the territorials (centralised) in the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907
      • Officer Training Corps
        • 25,000 members by 1914
        • Centralised youth officer training
        • Given grants by government
        • Produced professional officers
      • Imperial General Staff
        • Centralised command over the Empire forces
        • Planned strategy for war so the start of WW1 was efficient e.g. rapid mobilisation
        • Reorganised units for increased management
        • Created the CIGS to oversee the conduct of war
    • Graham 1832
      • Invested in larger ships and more ships
      • Ordered all crews to practice gunnery
        • Set up gunnery schools for improved rates of fire
      • Abolished the Naval Office and Board of Victualling
        • Gave power to the navy alone
        • Faster supply and servicing of ships due to less parliament bickering and faster communications
        • Individuals given jobs to control supply, so roles didn't overlap and there was no rivalry/confusion
        • Dockyards overseen by admirals and captains put out of work by ship reduction
    • Reluctance to develop
      • All wars were won
      • No threat of invasion until 1850s
      • Boer War- national inefficiency encouraged reform
      • Crimean War- supply problems encouraged change
      • Naval technology e.g. steam power unreliable so admiralty did not invest
    • McNeill-Tulloch Report 1855/56
      • Criticised High command and the commissariat
        • Little communication and acknowledgement of issues
      • Identified problems of diet, supply, medicine
        • Soldiers weren't getting their rations
        • Ill soldiers still attended to their duties
        • 40% of horses died 1854/55 winter
      • Suggestions and impacts
        • Improve supply distribution
        • Improve diets to reduce disease
        • 1858-Royal warrant for commissariat reform hands over supply duties to the military
        • Caused a scandal because it proved the press right
        • Chelsea Board absolve all blame of commanders

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