Key Individuals in The Development of Medicine

Key Individuals in the development of Medicine through time such as Hippocrates, Vesalius, Pasteur, Koch, Simpson, Fleming, Heatley, Bazalgette and Many More.

  • Created by: FS2015
  • Created on: 02-03-19 20:39
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  • Medicine Through Time: Key Individuals
    • 1) Medicine Stands Still
      • Hippocrates  developed the Theory of the Four Humours
      • Galen  developed the Theory of Opposites
      • Avicenna wrote the 'Canon of Medicine' which was ideas of Galen and Hippocrates
      • Johannitius travelled from Baghdad to Byzantium to collect Greek Medical texts.
      • Albucasis (Abu al-Qasim) wrote a book on amputations, dental surgery and removing bladder stones
      • Avenzoar described the parasite that caused scabies
      • Ibn al-Nafis correctly suggested that flood flowed from one side of the heart to the other via the lungs
      • King Edward III commented on the disgusting state of the river Thames
    • 2) The Beginnings of Change
      • Vesalius worked on understanding anatomy. he performed dissections of executed animals.
      • William Harvey worked on the heart and discovered that blood circulated around and was not remade
      • Ambroise Pare found a new way to treat gunshot wounds in the war. He improved amputations and invented ligatures
      • John Hunter found a way to treat aneurysms and worked on venereal disease
      • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu promoted inoculation
      • Florence Nightingale improved nursing standards, making sure all wards were clean and hygienic
      • Edward Jenner created a vaccination for Smallpox, which is now eradicated
    • 3) A Revolution in Medicine
      • Antoine van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope in the 17th century
      • Louis Pasteur was the first person to suggest that germs in the air caused disease. He published Germ Theory
      • Robert Koch linked specific diseases to the particular microbe that caused it such as anthrax, cholera, septicemia and TB. He did this using dyes
      • Charles Chamberland injected chickens with accidentally weakened Cholera, then again with fresh pathogens but the chickens still survived
      • Paul Ehrlich discovered the first magic bullet- Salvarsan 606
      • Humphry Davy identified Nitrous Oxide as an anaesthetic but was ignored at the time
      • Horace Wells did a public demo of laughing gas but the patient was unaffected by it and was in pain
      • William Morton did a public demo of Ether, which was risky as it is highly flammable
      • James Simpson discovered the effects of Chloroform by testing them on himself
      • Ignaz Semmelweis showed Chloride of Lime reduced the spread of infection
      • Joseph Lister discovered Carbolic Acid killed Germs
      • William Halsted invented surgical gloves in 1889
      • Edwin Chadwick reported on poverty and health in London
      • John Snow showed there was a connection between contaminated water and cholera
      • Joseph Bazalgette built new sewers in London
    • 4) Modern Medicine
      • Wilhelm Rontgen discovered X-Rays in 1895
      • William Coolidge invented a reliable X-Ray tube in 1913 called the Coolidge Tube
      • Marie Curie developed mobile x-ray units
      • Antoine Beclere set up training schools to teach doctors how to use x-ray equipment
      • Karl Landsteine discovered blood groups which led to more successful blood transfusions
      • Harold Gillies set up a plastic surgery unit for the army in WW1
      • Alexander Flemming discovered Penicillium Notatum mould
      • Ernst Chain devised a freeze drying technique which was important in the purification process
      • Howard Florey made a team to purify penicillin
      • Norman Heatley developed the back extraction technique for efficiently purifying penicillin in bulk
      • Arthur Gordon Sanders operated the penicillin extraction plant
      • Christiaan Barnard carried out the first successful heart transplant
      • Antoine Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie and Pierre Curie's discovery of radiation led to the creation of radiation therapy
      • Charles Booth 'Life and Labour of the People in London' showed how many Londoners were living in Poverty
      • Seebohm Rowntree 'Poverty, a study of Town Life' showed 28% of people in York couldnt afford basic food and housing
      • When Boer War broke out in 1899 40% of volunteers were physically unfit
      • David lloyd George realised he had to take action against poverty and ill health
      • William Beveridge said the government has a duty to care for all its citizens
      • Aneurin Bevan introduced the National Health Service

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