keeping healthy

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  • keeping healthy
    • diet and exercise
      • most people eat a varied diet, which includes everything needed to keep the body healthy
      • different people need different amounts of energy
      • the metabolic rate varies from person the person
      • the more exercise you do the more food you need
    • weight problems
      • if you take in more energy than your use, you will store excess as fat
      • obese people have more health problems than others
      • people who do not  eat can develop serious health problems
      • exercise helps reduce weight and maintain health
    • inheritance, health, and exercise
      • our inherited factors affect our health ,these include our metabolic rate and cholesterol levels
      • people who exercise regularly are usually healthier than those who do not
      • cultures should be incubated at a temp of 25 oc in schools to reduce the likelyhood of harmful pathogens growing
    • pathogens and disease
      • infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms called pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses
      • bacteria and viruses reproduce rapidly inside your body. bacteria can produce toxin which can make you feel ill
      • viruses damage your cells as the reproduce, this can also make you feel very ill
      • semmelweis recognized the importance of washing hands in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in hospital
    • defense mechanisms
      • your body has several methods of defending its self against the entry of pathogens using the skin,the clotting of the blood and and the mucus when breathing
      • your white blood cells help you defend against pathogens by ingesting them, making antibodies,and making antigens
    • using drugs to treat desease
      • some medicines relieve the symptoms of disease but do not kill the pathogens that cause it
      • antibiotics kill bacterial diseases by killing the bacteria inside your body
      • antibiotics do not destroy viruses because viruses reproduce inside the cells.it is difficult to develop drugs that can destroy viruses without damaging your body cells
    • growing and investigating bacteria
      • an uncontaminated culture of microorganisms can be grown using sterilized petri dishes and agar. the culture is left at 25 oc
      • uncontaminated cultures are needed so we can investigate the effects of chemicals such as disinfectants and antibiotics on microorganisms
    • changing pathogens
      • many types of bacteria have developed antibiotic resistance as a result of natural selection . to prevent the problem getting worse we must not overuse the antibiotics
      • if the bacteria viruses mutate, new strains of the pathogen can appear causing disease
      • new strains of disease which spread rapidly can cause epidemics and pandemics. antibiotics and vaccinations may not be effective against the new strain
    • immunity
      • your white blood cells produce antibiotics to destroy the pathogens, then your body will respond rapidly to the future infections by the same pathogens by making the correct antibodies you become immune to the disease
      • you can be immunized against a disease by introducing small amount of dead or inactive pathogens
      • we can use vaccinations to protect against  both bacterial and viral pathogens
    • how do we deal with disease
      • vaccinations protect individuals and society from the effects of a disease
      • the treatment of a disease has been changed as our understanding of how antibiotics and immunity was increased

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