Keeping Healthy

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  • Created by: LBC0502
  • Created on: 07-06-14 15:26
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  • Keeping Healthy
    • Diet and Exercise
      • Respiration: Glucose + Oxygen ? Carbon-dioxide + Water + Energy
      • Muscles contracts to move limbs, muscles need energy to contract
      • Muscle cells respire to release energy from glucose (from food)
      • Metabolism: the rate at which chemical reactions take place in cells
      • Metabolic rate: speed of chemical reactions
      • Factors that affects metabolic rate: amount of activity, proportion of muscle to fat, inherited characteristics, age and gender
      • A balanced diet contains all the nutrients and are eaten in correct proportions
      • Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are used by the body to release energy. Mineral ions and vitamins are needed in small amounts for function.
      • Carbohydrates provide energy (cereal, bread, pasta). Proteins provide growth and repair (fish, meat, eggs, dairy). Fat provides every store/insulation (butter oil, nuts).
      • Minerals/vitamins need in small amounts for function (salt, milk, fruit). Fibre provides roughage/aids digestion (vegetables, bran). Water is need for cells and body fluids (juice, milk, water).
      • Lose mass= energy intake is smaller than energy outpur
      • Body Mass Index - Weight/Height squared = BMI (Kg/m)
    • Malnourishment and Cholesterol
      • Malnutrition: A person is malnourished if their diet is not balanced and the eat the wrong amount or wrong types of food.
      • Forms of malnourishment: obesity, anorexia, deficiency diseases, rickets, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, arthritis.
      • Cholesterol is a substance made in the liver and found in certain foods.
      • HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) good cholesterol. LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins) bad cholesterol.
      • Excessive LDL clogs arteries and causes heart attacks and strokes. HDL is generated by the body to remove cholesterol from the arteries to reduce heart attacks and strokes.
      • Foods containing fat, salts and saturated fats causes a high level of cholesterol. Genetics also contributes to the causes of high cholesterol.
      • Statins help reduce the amount of cholesterol made in the body.
    • Infectious Diseases
      • A pathogen is any micro-organism that causes infectious diseases
      • Bacteria (food poisoning, meningitis, boils). Virus (colds, flu, virus, HIV/AIDS. Fungi (athletes foot, thrush)
      • Bacteria: cell wall, cytoplasm, loop of DNA (no nucleus). Carries out life processes, killed by antibiotics, produces toxins (ill), one bacterium can divide into 2 new bacteria every 20 minutes.
      • Virus: requires hosts cells to reproduce, unaffected by antibiotics, doesn't carry out life processes.
      • Virus attaches to host cell, injects genetic material into cell, genetic material makes copies in cell, new viruses made using chemicals in cell, original cell dies, new viruses break out to find new cells.
      • Viruses infect other species (e.g swine flu) and damages cells.
      • Aseptic Technique: task performed in sterile environment, prevents contamination, dishes sealed with tape to prevent other microbes contaminating the culture
      • Cultures incubated, warm for bacteria to reproduce, cannot incubate above 25 degrees Celsius (pathogens harm humans)
      • Methods: heat innoculation loop for every use, work near bunsen burner, wash surfaces
    • Ignaz Semmelweis
      • Hungarian doctor, worked in maternity department of Vienna Hospital
      • Discovered child bed fever. Fewer women died at home than in hospitals (doctors swapped between working with corpses and pregnant women).
      • Must always wash hands to kill bacteria (Semmelweis washed his hands in chlorinated lime)
      • Doctors didn't believe this theory as they didn't want to be blamed for deaths
      • Superbug MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
      • Lives on skin of 1 in 3 people and causes infection in the blood
      • Peer review is important because the causes of these problems could be found which would improve reliability and validity
      • 'Scientific proof is only every provisional' Theories are not 100% true.
    • Antibiotics and Painkillers
      • Antibiotics (anti, against, bio, living) like penicillin can only kill bacteria so they are of no use for a viral infection.
      • Medicines (painkillers, paracetomol) only relive symptoms. They don't kill pathogens.
      • Antibiotic resistance: MRSA is dangerous because it is resistant to most antibiotics.
      • To slow down or stop the development of other strains of resistant bacteria, you should always avoid the unecessary use of antibiotics and always complete the full course
      • Mutations are the cause of variation.
      • The fungus in penecillin is used in penicillin.
      • Epidemic - A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
      • Pandemic - Widespread over a whole country or the world. An outbreak of such as disease
    • Immunity and Vaccinations
      • Body defences: tears, saliva, skin, scab/blood clots, hydrochloric acid (stomach acid).
      • Cilia and mucus in the breathing system move microbes away from the lungs
      • White blood cells: defence force, part of immune system, ingest pathogens, produce antibodies and antitoxins.
      • Lymphocyte: detects pathogens and produces antibodies to fit pathogens (antigens) and cause them to clump together.
      • Phagocyte: engulfs pathogens. Each pathogens have different antigens so the antibody produced has to be specific to the antigen
      • White blood cells produce antitoxins to counteract the toxins released by the pathogens. White blood cells remember specific antibodies needed to fight pathogens.
      • If the pathogen invades again, the antibodies will fight the pathogen quicker to become immune to the diease.
      • Immunisation/Vaccination: small amounts of inactive pathogens are injected into the body, antigens in vaccine stimulate white blood cells to make antibodies to destroy pathogens
      • Become immune (fight pathogen quicker). Pros: prevent outbreak of disease, saves lives, kills diease, helps immune sytem.
      • Cons: virus evolves, people don't like injections, rendering vaccine as useless, expensive, long process to make vaccine, side effects.


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