Keeping Healthy - B2 OCR mindmap

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  • Created by: Holly
  • Created on: 15-01-13 10:47
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  • Keeping Healthy
    • Circulatory System
      • Supplying blood to your body
        • Blood is moved around your body in blood vessels.
        • Oxygen & nutrients are carried in blood to body cells, waste (C02) is carried away from the cells.
        • The heart pumps the blood around. It has a double pump
      • Heart
        • (Right Side) pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and drop of waste like carbon dioxide.
        • (Left Side) pumps oxygenated blood around the body.
    • Major types of Blood Vessels
      • Arteries
        • carries blood away from the heart
        • Comes out at high pressure so the walls are much thicker than veins and are strong but elastic.
      • Veins
        • Bigger lumen to help flood flow easily
        • carry blood back to heart. Bloods at lower pressure so thinner walls
        • . Have valves to make blood flow in right direction.
      • Capillaries
        • carry blood close to cells to exchange substances with them.
        • Have permeable walls so substances can diffuse in and out
        • They supply nutrients and oxygen but take away waste and co2.
        • Walls are only one cell thick, increases rate of diffusion by decreasing the distances in which it occurs.
    • Antimicrobals
      • Good points
        • Antibiotics are antimicrobials that can kill bacteria- it cannot get rid of flu/colds as these are viruses.
        • Are chemicals that inhibit the growth of a microorganism or kill it without seriously damaging your own body.
      • Bad Points
        • Some microorganisms can evolve and become resistant to antimicrobials.
        • Sometimes new antimicrobials are created and get rid of it, some cant- these are now ‘superbugs’
        • The process of natural selection happens and this mutation gets passed on as it reproduces. This makes it harder to get rid off.
    • Heart + Pulse Rate
      • To allow your blood to pump around your body it has to be put under pressure- blood pressure
      • Heart rate= number of times your heart beats in a minute (in BPM, beats per minute)
      • Pulse rate= number of times an artery pulsates in one minute.
      • Can measure blood pressure by taking a reading of the pressure the blood against the artery’s walls.
    • Heart Disease
      • Inner lining of artery is meant to be smooth and unbroken, high blood pressure can damage it.
      • Fat can build up in arteries and restrict blood flow which increases blood pressure.
      • If the coronary artery gets blocked it means that half the hearts muscles don’t get any oxygen and this can cause a heart attack- heart attacks cause series damage or death of the heart muscles with can be fatal.
      • Lifestyle Factors
        • Poor diet
        • Smoking
        • Stress
        • Drugs + Alcohol
    • Negative Feedback
      • Homeostatsis
        • s how the body balances it’s inputs & outputs & maintaining a constant internal environment.
      • All these systems are made up of three main components which work together to maintain a steady condition:
        • Receptors
          • detect a change in the environment
        • Effectors
          • produces a response to counteract the change.
        • Processing centres
          • receives information and coordinates a response.
      • When the level of something is too high your body uses negative feedback to get it back to normal.
      • Receptors detect a change in the environment- level is too high/too low
      • Processing centres receives information and coordinates a response.
      • Effectors produce a response to counteract the change- the level decreases/increases
    • Controling Water balance
      • Kidneys help regulate water content- water level in cells is really important, it has to be at the right level for cell activity.
      • Inputs + Outputs
        • water can be gained from drinks, food and respiration.
        • water can be lost in sweating, breathing, in poo & urine.
      • If you don’t drink enough water or eat too much salt it produces concentrated urine & drinking lots of water will produce lots of dilute urine.
      • Kidneys help balance substances in the body:
        • Whatever isn’t reabsorbed makes urine which is taken from kidneys and stored in bladder.
        • Reabsorb various things like sugar and as much salt & water the body requires.
        • Kidneys also filter small molecules like water, sugar, salt and waste from blood.
        • Play vital role in balancing levels of water, waste & other chemicals.
      • ADH
        • ADH controls the concentration of urine, it’s released into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland.
        • The brain looks at the amount of water in the blood and tells the pituitary gland to release ADH dependant on how much is needed.
        • This whole process is controlled by negative feedback…
        • Decreasing ADH makes your urine increase and increasing ADH makes your urine amount decrease.
          • Alcohol
            • stops ADH producing so it makes you urinate more and feel dehydrated.
          • Ecstasy
            • increases amount of ADH produced so kidneys produce less urine.
  • carry blood back to heart. Bloods at lower pressure so thinner walls
  • Kidneys help balance substances in the body:
    • Whatever isn’t reabsorbed makes urine which is taken from kidneys and stored in bladder.
    • Reabsorb various things like sugar and as much salt & water the body requires.
    • Kidneys also filter small molecules like water, sugar, salt and waste from blood.
    • Play vital role in balancing levels of water, waste & other chemicals.

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