(Keats) Nature

  • Created by: NHow02
  • Created on: 15-05-19 16:15
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  • Nature
    • To Autumn
      • 'o'er-brimmed their clammy cells'
        • Use of full words ('bosom'/ 'swell'/ 'plump') creates an image of ripeness
          • Idea of satisfaction (abundant atmosphere)
            • Arnold: 'emphatically and abundantly sensuous' but not 'anything else'
        • 'cells' is a medical word (focusing on the microscopic details of nature)
          • Alliteration begins harsh but ends soft (atmosphere of release)
      • 'gathering swallows twitter in the skies'
        • Swallows could represent a physical + spiritual journey (migration)
          • Keats is ready to die (next step to find transcen-dence)
            • Keats dies of TB in Rome at the age of 25 in 1821
    • On the Sea
      • 'gluts twice ten thousand caverns'
        • Plosive consonants creates an onomatopoeic effect
          • Mimics the lapping of waves against & inside the caves
          • Sensuous motion creates a satisfying effect
            • Thomas Wright: 'the union of joy and pain'
        • Numeric reference emphasises vastness of the sea (immeasurable)
          • Keats was influenced by Spenser ('The Faerie Queens') who emphasised rich natural description
        • 'gluts' creates a greedy effect (corrosion of thought/worries)
          • 'caverns' creates an empty effect (soothes the soul/fills hole)
            • Keats was forced to take responsibility of his siblings at a young age (after the death of his parents)
    • Ode to Melancholy
      • 'nightshade', 'yew-berries' & 'ruby grape'
        • Reference to poisonous plants (suggests melancholy is an overload of senses)
          • Body is unable to cope ('fit') & shuts down
        • Romanticism (Keats also studied to be an apothecary)
          • Constantly surrounded by death (family & while studying to be a surgeon)
      • 'weeping', 'cloudy' & 'rainbow'
        • Watery feel of clouds creates a heavy effect (rain brings release - embrace melancholy)
          • Rainbows are images of hope (appear during rain)
          • Water is also a cleansing image
    • Ode to Psyche
      • 'I wandered in a forest thoughtlessly'
        • A forest is typically a symbol of the subcons-cious
          • Keats uses a natural metaphor to describe his tumultuous thoughts
            • John Jones: incapable of 'jostling in the real world'
          • Fricatives create a suffocating effect (overcome by internal thoughts)
        • 'forest' to 'gardener'
          • Tame image suggests he is overwhelmedby women (as he is by nature)
            • Keats wants to lure her into a managed/ controlled environment


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