Stalinist Russia - 1924-1953

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  • Joseph Stalin
    • Lenin dies 1923
      • Wrote letter stating he wanted Trotsky in charge
      • Goes on to make Trotsky look bad- like giving him the wrong date for Lenin's funeral
      • Got Trostsky out of the party in 1927
        • 1929- Stalin undisputed leader of the USSR
      • Lenin left a centralised form of government
        • Giving foundations for Stlain to form his government on
      • Stalin more aggressive than Lenin
    • Ideaology
      • Lenin's cult help him gain more public support
      • Didn't help him gain more supporters
      • Had very limited opposition
    • Socialism in one country
      • Patriotic policy- faith in soviet people
      • Adopted marxism-leminism
      • Brought in collectivisation and industrialisation ending the compromise of NEP
      • Got rid of collective leadership
      • Cult of Lenin- make him in to a god- goes against marxist ideallogoy
    • NEP- Why did Stalin want it gone?
      • Wanted to bring in rapid industrialisa-tion
      • War scare: future relations looked bad and USSR needed to be strong enough to defend itself
      • 1927-1928 grain production fell and grain requisition was brought back in
      • Was only meant to be a temporary solution
    • Collectivisation
      • Kolkhoz collectives- group of peasants who collected grain
        • Set quota- land given away from private owners so farmers can hit their quota
      • Grain production was very poor in 1926 only 50% of the expected grain was produced
        • Stalin hated the kulaks with a burning passion as they went agaisnt bourgeois ideals
          • Dekulakisation
            • Led to families being deported
      • Salin thought the Kulaks were holding back on grain and sent the Cheka and the red army in
      • Dekulakisation
        • Led to families being deported
    • 1932-1933- Holomoder Famine, Ukraine
      • 7-10 mil dead after Stalin starved them (genocide)
      • Blamed famine on poor harvest
      • Suggested Stalin wanted cultural independence as wherever Ukrainians died Russians settled in their place
      • Secret police went door to door to get every last bit of grain
    • Building a communist economy
      • Industry nationalised- private business owners banned  so the state can set the wages and the working hours
      • Stalin made a  command economy so the government decided things like what was grown
      • Made targets that were unrealistic
    • The Stalin constitution
      • 1936- Published most democratic constitution the nation had ever seen
        • Guaranteed: freedom from arbitrary arrest, freedom of speech and press, right to demonstrate, autonomy for ethnic minorities, employment for all, universal suffrage for all over 18s, free elections and secret ballots
          • All marxist policies
            • Not upheld and mainly ignored
    • Heavily used propaganda throughout to keep the people distracted
    • The great terror
      • Stalin's terror and opposition: Class war fare to force through economic policies, crisis of 1932 Stalin's wife suicide and two groups of Bolsheviks trying to remove Stalin, Kirov's murder, Great purges 1936-1938 (show trials)

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