John and the Barons

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  • John and The Barons
    • Good Relations
      • Robert De Lacy granted Pontefract Castle in 1199 as he proved his loyalty to John in defence of Chateau Gaillard (until it fell in 1204). Further proved loyalty by supporting John between 1202-1204 in wars against Philip
      • Hubert de Burgh held Chinon and Tourraine until 1205, John the paid his ransom to return to England in 1206, supported him in Poitou campaign
      • Knights and mercenary captains such as Gérard d’Athée defended De Loches castle in Tourraine until forced to surrender
      • Support from John's baronage was secured by Hubert Walter, ABoC and chancellor and William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke
      • William of Ely served as treasurer and Geoffrey FitzPeter served as chief justiciar - both were loyal and competent administrators
    • Bad Relations
      • Robert FitzWalter and Saer de Quincy surrended Vandreuil to Philip in 1203
      • William Marshall betrays john by paying homage to Philip in 1205
      • John was struggling for in 1205 however was able to campaign in 1206 which showed he still had some baronial support
      • William Marshall and Hubert Walter refuse to participate in siege with John in 1205 (Portsmouth)
      • 1207 - John removes barons he believes to be very powerful on the borderland territories such as William Marshall and William De Braose and replaces them with loyal mercenary captains such as Gerard d'Athee.
    • The De Braose Affair
      • William De Braose was favourite until 1207. He held  territory in  Wales where John needed to assert his authority.
      • William's wife refused to hand over her son as hostage for John and publicly accused him of the murder of Arthur
        • De Braose is then hunted following this but John claims it's because of the money De Braose owed him from his estates
      • John seizes De Braose's lands of Sussex and Devon, and sends forces to seize his lands in Wales
        • William flees to Ireland where John hunts for him there and then back to Wales. He then escapes to France in 1220 and dies there in 1211.
          • All allies of William were punished
      • William's wife Matilda and son William were captured. Matilda is suspected to have started to death in imprisonment at Windsor and Corfe Castle. William's 4 other sons were also imprisoned.
        • John's proclamations on his actions were witnessed by 5 earls and 7 barons. 6 of which became rebel leaders in 1215.
    • By 1211, John was in a powerful position.
      • He increased the costs of feudal incidents
      • He raised scutage 11 times in 16 years, in comparison to his father's 8 times in 34 years and Richard's 3 times in 10 years.
      • Baron's indebtedness increased by 380% from 1199 - 1208

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