Italy and germany

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  • Blackshirts+ Swastikas: Facism in Europe
    • facist Italy:
      • Mussolini leader of movement
        • advocated for socialist revolution in contrast to reformist
      • 1914= campaigns for entering war, expelled from socialist party.
        • creates own newspaper 'il Popolo d'italia' offical fascist newspaper
      • 1919- Mussolini created Fasci di COmbattimento. Movement funded in opposition to liberal establishment
        • says Italy not able to get fair share at end of warand violent opposition to communist party in 1921
      • 1922= Mussolini appointed PM by King
        • violent March to Rome, violence always key component of his movement (similar to Nazi's)
      • 1925= Mussolini announces dictatorship at apex of Matteotti crisis. took full responsbility o killing Matteotti
        • shows willing to act outside of boundaries
      • 1926= Exceptional Decrees' = opposition parties disbanded; non-fascist newspapers closed
        • political opponents can be sent to confino (house arrest, sent ot remote vollages or remote islands, forced to confinement)
      • afte decrees, tribunal of defence of sate only purpose was to persecute political opponents (eventually supressed altogether)


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