Issues and Debates

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  • Issues and Debates
    • Research methods
      • Correlational analysis
        • Cramer (1997)
      • Longitudinal
        • Money (1975) - Bruce, Brenda, David
      • Cross-sectional
        • Bellis et al (2001)
      • Obervations
        • Covert
        • Overt
        • Participant
        • Non-participant
          • Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)
            • Covert
      • Surveys
        • Questionnaires
          • Blattler (2002)
        • Interviews
          • Money (1975)
      • Case study
        • Freud (1909) - Little Hans
      • Experiments
        • Natural
          • Yuille and Cutshall (1986)
        • Field
          • Yarmey (2004)
        • Lab
          • Loftus and Palmer (1974)
        • Animal
          • Skinner (1948)
      • Scanning Techniques
        • MRI
          • Bellis et al (2001)
        • PET
          • Raine (1997)
    • Planning an Investigation
      • 1. Aim
      • 2. Research method
        • Levels of measurement
          • Nominal
          • Ordinal
          • Interval
      • 3. Problems
      • 4. IV
      • 5. DV
      • 6. Controls
      • 7. Research design
      • 8. Null Hypothesis
      • 9. Ethical considerations
        • Ethical guidelines for humans and animals
      • 10. Plan
      • 11. Ensuring relability and validity
    • Key Issues
      • Health
        • Should drug users be treated?
      • Clinical
        • Explanations of Schizophrenia
      • Cognitive
        • Accuracy of eye witness testimony
      • Social
        • Blind obedience in a prison setting
      • Biological
        • Is autism an extreme male brain condition?
      • Psychodynamic
        • Whether dreams have meaning
      • Learning
        • Do role models in the media influence anorexia?
      • Criminal
        • Accuracy of eye witness testimony
    • Contributions to society
      • Health
        • Drug campaigns (Talk to Frank)
      • Clinical
        • Understanding schizophrenia
        • Token economy programmes
      • Cognitive
        • Cognitive interview
        • Understanding problems of eye withness testimony
      • Social
        • Reducing prejudice
        • Understanding obedience
      • Psychodynamic
        • Psychoanalysis
        • Understanding gender
      • Biological
        • Autism
        • Understanding gender
      • Learning
        • Token Economy Programmes
        • Systematic desensitisation
      • Criminal
        • Anger management
        • Eye witness testimony
    • Ethnocentrism
      • Focus on own culture and see own culture as normal or in some way better
      • Usually a criticism
      • Type of bias
      • Often takes participants from own ethnic group
      • Often white, middle class male American students
      • Results often generalised to human population
      • Smith and Bond (1993) found most research in Introductory Psychology books based on US and European participants but generalised to humans universally
      • Main problems
        • Imbalance in research - huge focus on US and European cultures
        • The research findings are applied to other cultures inappropriately
      • Cultural relativism
        • The practice of understanding behaviour in the culture it came from
        • Mental health
      • Cross-cultural studies
        • Meeus and Raajimakers (1985)
        • True et al (2001)
        • Etic
          • Assumes universals in human behaviour
          • Uses tools from own culture
          • Outsiders perspective
        • Emic
          • Investigates cultural uniqueness
          • Insiders perspective
    • Nature vs Nurture
      • Biological: -Gender Theory -Money -Raine
      • Learning: -Social Learning Theory -Operant+classical conditioning -Little Albert -Bandura
      • Cognitive: -Reconstructive memory -Cue-dependency -Levels of processing -Repression -Godden and Baddeley -Craik and Tulving
      • Psychodynamic: -Psychosexual stages -Structure of personality -Defence mechanisms -Little Hans -Freud
      • Social: -Social Identity Theory -Agency Theory -Milgram -Hofling -Meeus and Raaijmaker -Tajfel
      • Nature - innate, instinctive, what we are born with, processes that develop as we mature, biology, unchangeable.
      • Nurture - environment, learnt behaviour, conditoning
    • Is Psychology a Science?
      • Science
        • a definable subject matter
        • theory construction
        • hypotheses testing
        • empirical methods
        • explanation, prediction, control, general law or principles
      • Should we test behaviour in a scientific way?
      • Psychodynamic
      • Social
      • Learning
      • Cognitive
      • Biological
    • Social control
      • Drug Therapy
      • Token Economies
      • Classical Conditioning
      • Influence of the practitioner in treatment/therapy
      • Psychodynamic

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