Classification and Diagnosis of SZ

  • Created by: ces
  • Created on: 08-01-16 09:32
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  • Issues Associated with the Classification & Diagnosis of SZ
    • Reliability
      • the same person, presenting the same symptoms may be diagnosed by one doctor but not by another
      • diagnosis varies because there are two classification systems; ICD (UK) or DSM (USA)
        • in one book, symptoms must persist for 1 month, and in the other 6 months
        • 5 types of SZ in one book, 7 in the other
      • The aim of Cooper's experiment was to show the difference of diagnosis depending on what classification system you use.
        • 250 patients at a psychiatric ward presented their symptoms to 2 groups of psychiatrists one used the ICD and the other the DCM
          • The group using the ICD diagnosed 85 people with SZ, whereas the group using the DCM diagnosed 163 people with SZ, shows the difference in diagnosis rates
      • As the classification and diagnosis of SZ may have an issue  with reliability, there is also an issue with validity and the accuracy and lack of consistency of the diagnosis
        • Mistakes with either misdiagnosis or un-diagnosis may occur, meaning that you cannot back up a theory with unreliable data
    • Validity
      • SZ is difficult to diagnose accurately. Often people are misdiagnosed or go undiagnosed
      • Being certain that a diagnosis of SZ is accurate can be difficult because;
        • 2.Comorbidity - meaning SZ often exists alongside other psychiatric problems (commonly substance misuse - can be used to self medicate, or depression)
        • 1.Symptoms can easily be confused with other disorders .e.g. bipolar
        • 3.There is no objective test for it
      • Rosenhan's experiments
        • 1st Experiment; The Pseudo Patient Experiment
          • Staff failed to spot 8 pseudo patients, once labelled with SZ, much of their behaviour was interpreted as support for diagnosis .e.g feeling of grandeur working for a  well known psychologist. some had to take anti psychotic medication to be released
        • 2nd Experiment; Non-Existent Imposter
          • Told staff that he sent imposters to different over 3 months. 41/193 were considered imposters, however he did not send any
      • Once labelled SZ, everything someone does seems to exhibit SZ symptoms, meaning that it may be difficult for patients to live normally
    • Negative consequences of recieving a diagnosis
      • Feared and avoided due to stigma
      • Biological element means patients may see little hope for recovery and may become passive recipients of care
      • The Media's role of propagating the violence and SZ link
    • Positive consequences of receiving a diagnosis
      • Gives people access to treatment and an understanding of their problems
      • 'Was like a relief'
      • Untreated SZ can have poorer outcomes
    • Labelliing
      • Reasons the CASL want to abolish the SZ label
        • Often diagnosed wrongly as there is a lack of reliability, meaning that there is no real benefit of using the label
        • Damaging to those it is applied to as the disorder is mis-understood and implies dangerous and unpredictable nature.
        • Being diagnosed does not necessarily lead to successful treatment as the treatment may still not work
      • Farina et al
        • Study shows that the stereotype associated with SZ includes being less intelligent, being unpredictable, dangerous and dirty
      • This means that the consequence of the label SZ means that that many employers admit they would not knowingly employ someone with SZ


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