ISSUES AND DEBATES - Gender and Culture bias

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  • Gender and Culture bias
    • General
      • def bias: inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair
      • theories / research may be biased or show bias
      • UNIVERSALITY: psych principles should be applicable to all people, regardless of characteristics, background etc
      • difference NOT THE SAME as bias
      • many theories include gen / cult biases. They can be described as E**ENTIALIST (suggesting that gend diffs are inevitable and fixed)
        • eg. attachment theory
        • women getting pregnant
        • sexual selection - evolutionary theory
    • Types of bias
      • ALPHA BIAS: exaggeration of difference, devaluing one group (females, males, one culture group) eg. psychodynamic
      • BETA BIAS: using subject from one particular group then try to generalise this to other groups
        • ignoring or minimising differences
        • biopsychology: tend and befriend - oxytocin
        • ** being developed in western cultures
    • Gender bias
      • ANDROCENTRISM - centred or focused on men
      • publication bias - male names more likely to be accepted (and will be higher rated) over female name
      • KOHLBERG moral development - just used teen boys. assumed female scored lower
        • GILLIGAN - males have justice orientation, female have caring one
        • alpha - women are not as moral as men
      • research egs. Asch, Milgram, Zimbardo
    • Cultural bias
      • example, German's are different hypothesis (Milgram), strange situation
      • usually Western VS other countries (not Eastern)
      • psychology as a subject is Western based - use of tools inappropriately in other countries (IQ test, strange situation)
        • IQ test - alpha bias - used to argue that some cultures are intellectually inferior to others. Beta bias - use of tool designed for Western cultures elsewhere
      • ethnocentrism - seeing things from the point of view of ourselves and our social group. Evaluating other groups of people using the standards and customs of your own culture
      • culture relativism - behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is from the point of view from that culture
      • emic and etic - forced / imposed etic. Inappropriate applying things to other cultures
      • HOFSTEDE - identified 'four dimensions of culture' - diff cultures handle same probs differently
        • power distance (hierarchy of power)
        • collectivism VS individualism (West)
          • eg. self-actualisation is not desirable to collectivist cultures in Maslow's hierarchy
        • masculinity VS femininity
        • uncertainty avoidance
        • later added: restraint / indulgence, short / long term thinking
      • imposed etic research
        • strange situation: western child rearing being pushed on other cultures
          • Israeli kibbutzums - collectivist, regarded as insecure avoidant
        • conformity / obedience: Asch, power distance
        • social exchange theory - individ/collect
        • bandura: masculinity / femininity
        • maternal deprivation hypoth: individ/collect
        • offender surveys: restraint / indulgence

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