Iran-iraq war

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  • Iran-iraq war
    • causes
      • 1980(saddam hussein)
        • Khomeini called iraqis to rise against saddam.(most iraqis were shiites)
        • feared that iran was plotting to overthwow him
        • chance to gain territory
          • seize oil
          • seize coastline and ports
        • iran was weak
          • economy chaos
          • facing western boycott
          • army demoralised
        • show iraq wasnt intimidated
    • war
      • sep 1980
        • iraq invaded and faced little resistance
          • halted at iranian desert
            • fired missile at cities(war of the cities
      • iraq superior firepower,iran bigger population
        • iranians had 'revolutionary enthusiasm "(martyrs)
          • iran recaptured all lands + cut off iraq's only sea ports
            • fired missile at cities(war of the cities
            • target:seize baghdad,overthrow saddam's regime so they didn't accept ceaseire)(
              • iraqi forces became more united
      • by 1984
        • trench warfare
    • foreign involvement
      • most arab states supported iraq(cuz they're sunnis)
        • scared of iran:overthrowing iraq + threat to oil fields
        • jordan provided inport and export routes
          • port of Aqaba
        • saudi,egyot,jordan and oil rich gulf states supplied money and arms to iraq
      • fra,ger,soviet union,us
        • sided iraq
          • us kept iraq imformed of iranian troop movements.
          • provided equipment,later used to make chemical weapons
            • turned blind eye when used against iran
        • their thoughts of iran
          • controlling oil and even world oil prices
          • lead to collapse of pro western regimes in the gulf
      • from 1986
        • each side attacked eney's tankersand oil installations
        • iraq controlled skies while iean had a stronger air force
        • soviet offered help when iran attacked kuwaiti ships
        • us provided protedtion for kuwaiti ships:to pre-empt further soviet aid and maintain its influence within oil rich gulf states
          • soviet offered help when iran attacked kuwaiti ships
        • iran cut off iraq's acess to the gulf through Shatt al arab waterway
          • us destroyed much of iranian navy and provided protection for iraqi ships.
    • ceasefire,1988
      • iran accepted ceasefire
        • only a truce,both sides continued to re-arm
        • economy down,martyrs subsided,faced with a possiblity of direct war with usa.
      • deaths
        • half a million iraqis
        • a million iranians
      • both sides hoped for minority groups within enemy countries to rise up
        • didn't happen
    • consequences
      • iran
        • suffered widespread destruction
          • still had 55 million population
          • still a major power
          • oil revenue dropped
        • didn't suceed in spreading its shiite brand of islam
        • more scientifical advances sice war
      • iraq
        • suffered extensive damage
          • heath ,education,economy and society suffered
          • life expectancy fell
            • heath ,education,economy and society suffered
          • no post-war recovery
            • value of oil exports declined
              • people in oil industry lost their jobs
                • army officers felt cheated and blamed saddam for lost
            • thousands of soldiers demobilised
              • more unemployment
            • riots and strikes despite police and army
              • some done in mosques,beyong control of police and army
        • $80 billion debts
          • yet saddam spent on arms instead of rebuilding country
        • several attempts to overthrow saddam
          • many officers executed for conspiracy

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