Biological Elements- Ions

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  • Ions
    • Cations
      • potassium ions (K+):       -nerve impulse transmission  -stomatal opening
      • sodium ions  (Na+):            -nerve impulse transmission  -kidney function
      • hydrogen ions (H+):       -catalysis of reactions        -pH determination
      • calcium ions  (Ca2+):          -nerve impulse transmission  -muscle contraction
      • ammonium ions (NH4+):   -production of nitrate ions by bacteria
    • Anions
      • chloride ions (Cl-):              -balance positive charge of sodium and potassium ions in cells
      • hydrogen carbonate ions (HCO3-): -maintenance of blood pH
      • phosphate ions (PO43-): -cell membrane formation       -nucleic acid and ATP formation       -bone formation
      • nitrate ions (NO3-):          -nitrogen supply to plants for amino acid and protein formation
      • hydroxide ions (OH-):     -catalysis of reactions        -pH determination

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