1.2 Ionisation Energies and Successive Ionisation Energies

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  • Ionisation Energies
    • The process of removing electrons
    • The process for the first ionisation energy (I.E) of an element is summarised in the equation: X(g)>X+(g)+e-
    • Electrons are held in their shells through an attraction to the nucleus. The stronger the attraction, the stronger the ionisation energy. I.E depends on:
      • Size of the positive nuclear charge.
      • Distance of the outer electron from the nucleus - further from the nucleus the lower the I.E
      • Shielding effect by electrons in filled inner shells which cause repulsion, which lowers the I.E
    • Successive Ionisation Energies
      • An element has the same amount of successive ionisation energies as there are electrons
        • Sodium has 11 successive ionisation energies
      • Successive ionisation energies always increase as:
        • Greater effective nuclear charge as there are the same number of protons holding fewer and fewer electrons
        • As each electron is removed there is less electron-electron repulsion so more energy is require to remove the electrons
        • As the distance from each electron and the nucleus decreases, nuclear attraction increases

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