Ionic Bonding

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  • Ionic Bonding
    • Ionic Bonds
      • Electrons are transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal atom
      • An ionic bond is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
      • The metal ion = +ve, the non-metal ion = -ve
      • E.g. Ionic bonding in sodium chloride, Na2O
        • The compound is formed from the +ve sodium atoms and the -ve oxygen atom
          • An Na atom has 1 e- in it's outer shell
            • One e- is transferred:
              • From each of the two sodium atoms
              • to one oxygen atom
              • With the formation of two Na+ ions and one O2- ion
          • An O atom has 6 e- atoms in its outer shell
            • One e- is transferred:
              • From each of the two sodium atoms
              • to one oxygen atom
              • With the formation of two Na+ ions and one O2- ion
    • Giant Ionic Lattices
      • A giant iconic lattice is a three-dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds.
      • All ionic compounds exist as giant atomic lattices in their solid state
      • Each ion attracts oppositely charged ions from all directions
        • Each ion is surrounded by oppositely charged ions
    • Properties of Ionic Compounds
      • High melting and boiling points
        • Ionic compounds are solid at room temp.
          • Therefore a large amount of energy is needed to break the strong electrostatic forces that hold the oppositely charged ions together in the solid ionic lattic.
      • Electrical conductivity
        • In a solid ionic lattice:
          • The ions are in a fixed position and no ions can move
          • The ionic compound is a non-conductor of electricity
        • When an ionic compound is melted or dissolved in water:
          • The solid lattice breaks down and the ions are free to move
          • The solid compound is now a conductor of electricity
      • Solubility
        • The ionic lattice dissolves in polar solvents, such as water
          • The polar water molecules break down the lattice surrounding each ion to form a solution.
        • E.g. When NaCl is dissolved in water, the giant ionic lattice breaks down
          • Water molecules attract Na+ and Cl- ions, the ionic lattice breaks down as it dissolves. water molecules surround the ions.
            • Na+ attracts (delta-) charges on the O atoms of the water molecules and Cl- attracts (delta+) charges on the H atoms of the water molecules

Comments

Char'Rose

Really good, and really detailed! This really helped me when I was making notes on Ionic bonding! Thanks :) 

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