Ionic bonding

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  • Ionic Bonding
    • Transferring electrons
      • Transfer of electrons allows atoms to become ions
        • Ions are charged atoms
        • Losing electrons makes a +ion
        • Gaining electrons makes a - ion
          • +ion and - ion attract and bond
            • Losing electrons makes a +ion
    • Outer shells
      • Right side of the periodic table (Groups 6/7)
        • They nearly have a full outer shell, 6/7 electrons so they're keen to gain electrons.
        • eg. O, Cl, S
      • Left side of the periodic table (Groups 1/2)
        • They only have 1/2 electrons on their outer shell so they're keen to give away electrons
        • eg. Na, K, Ca
    • Ionic compound structure
      • Giant ionic lattice structure
        • Closely packed
        • Regular Lattice arrangement
          • These features of the structure cause very strong electrostatic attraction in all directions between opposite charged ions
            • Cuboid Shape
            • Closely packed
        • Cuboid Shape
    • Ionic compound properties
      • High melting and boiling points due to strong attraction in all directions
      • Dissolve easily in water
        • When dissolved or molten, ionic compounds carry electric current as their ions are free to move.
          • Takes a large amount of energy to melt due to the strong electrostatic attractions
      • Takes a large amount of energy to melt due to the strong electrostatic attractions
      • Brittle when crushed because the arrangement becomes irregular so the ions with same charge repel.

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