Investigating populations

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  • Investigating Populations
    • Ecology
      • Species
        • A group of closely related organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
      • Population
        • All individuals of a species living together in the same area at the same time
      • Community
        • All individuals of all species living together in the same area at the same time
      • Habitat
        • Where an organism lives in an ecosystem
      • Niche
        • Where an organism lives, what it does, what it feeds on and how it interacts with other organisms
      • Biotic factor
        • Living factor that affects distribution of an organism
        • Competition, Predation, Disease
      • Abiotic factor
        • Non living factor that affect the distribution of an organism
        • Light, CO2, PH, Temperature
    • Abundance
      • Population density
        • Actual count of individuals present
      • Percentage cover
        • Area of a quadrat covered by a species recorded as percentage of total area
      • Frequency
        • Proportion of quadrats that contain a particular species
    • Random Quadratting
      • Place two measuring tapes at right angles to one another (create grid)
        • Generate random coordinates on calculator
          • Place quadrat at intersect
            • Measure abundance
      • What species present and abundance
      • Compare two areas
      • Compare one area at different times
    • Systematic sampling
      • Place tape measure to create transect line across area
        • Generate random numbers to decide intervals the quadrat will be placed at along line
          • Place quadrats and measure abundance
      • Measure how diversity changes over area
    • Mark release recapture
      • Method
        • Species collected counted and marked
          • Species then released and allowed time to redistribute
            • Second capture of the species which counts number of species caught and number of them already marked
              • N1 X N2 /Nm
      • Ethics
        • Studied in situ or returned to same spot even if dead
          • Few individuals removed as possible
            • Minimal damage
              • Sites not over used


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