investigating selection

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  • investigating selection
    • genome sequencing
      • entire base sequences of organisms can be determined
        • this can be compared to other organisms to see how closely related they are
      • as mRNA sequences are complementary to DNA, we can read mRNA to see how closely related they are
    • proteins
      • comparing amino acid sequences
        • proteins are made of amino acids which are coded for by DNA base sequences
          • related organisms have similar DNA base sequences and thus similar amino acid sequences
      • immunological comparisons
        • similar proteins bind to the same antibodies
          • e.g. if antibodies to a human version of a protein are added to isolated samples from another species, any protein that's like the human version will be recognised
    • observable characteristics
      • As observable features are determined by DNA and proteins, it is a useful way of seeing similarities and differences
      • Most observable features are polygenic - coded for by more than one gene
      • Observable features can be changed by the environment, so not reflective of DNA differences


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