Introduction to organic chemistry

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  • Intro To Organic Chemistry
    • Functional group
      • Compounds that behave in a similar way
        • Because they have a particular atom or group of atoms
      • Each function group has distinctive properties
        • Properties are governed by the function group
      • Alkane
        • -ane
        • C-C
      • Alkene
        • -ene
        • C=C
      • Haloalkane
        • Fluro-, Chloro-, Bromo-, Iodo-
        • -X
          • X= F, Cl, Br, I
      • Alcohol
        • -ol
        • -OH
    • Homologous series
      • Series of compounds with a similar structure that's members differ by a common repeating unit
        • CH2
      • All share the same general formula
      • All share the same functional group
      • Differs by CH2
      • Similar chemical properties
      • Gradual change in physical properties
        • As the molar mass increases
      • Usually prepared by similar methods
    • Different formulae
      • General formula
        • Any member of a homologous series
        • CnH2n
      • Molecular formula
        • Shows the exact number of each atom present
        • C4H10 is Butane
      • Empirical formula
        • Simplest whole number ratio of atoms
        • C2H5 is Butane
      • Condensed structural formula
        • Drawn with minimul detail using groups of atoms
        • CH3CH2CH3
      • Display formula
        • Shows every bond and every atom
      • Skeletal formula
        • Shows a simplified organic molecule
        • Carbon atoms displayed with the joining of lines
        • Functional groups are drawn
    • Naming
      • 1) The number of carbons in the longest chain/ring
        • Makes the prefix
          • Meth, Eth, Prop, But, Pent, Hex
      • 2) Type and position of functional groups
        • Suffix of the name
      • 3) Count how many carbons are in the side chains
        • Methyl, Ethyl, Propyl, Butyl, Pentyl
        • Show the number carbon the chain branches from
        • If there is more than one branching chain add a number locating both
          • Must add the number of groups using a di- or tri-
          • 2,3- dimethylbutane
      • Haloalkanes
        • Names using prefixes Fluoro-, Bromo-, Iodo-
        • Specify what carbon it comes from
        • If there is more than one function group they are added alphabetically
      • Cycloalkanes
        • Same general formula as alkenes
        • Rings have a cyclo-

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