Into the 20th Century

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  • Created by: Sally.P
  • Created on: 12-09-18 08:46
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  • Into the 20th Century
    • Neo-Classicism
      • A reaction against the 'trend' of 19th Century Romanticism
      • A return to balanced forms and often emotional restraint
      • 18th century compositional processes and techniques
      • Use of a full orchestra and advanced harmony makes Neo-Classicism distinctly 20th Century
      • Composers
        • Poulenc
        • Tippett
        • Prokofiev
          • Lived in Ukraine, part of the USSR
            • Soviet gvt exercised censorship over music and the arts
              • Artistic freedom was oppressed
                • Travelled to escape censorship
                  • Met Diaghilev (ballet choreographer)
                    • Rejected his music
                      • Returned to Russia
            • Music wasn't heard in public if it was 'too difficult' for common people to appreciate
            • Neo-classicism fitted into the regime
            • Was composing at age 5
            • At 13 entered the Conservatoire in Moscow
            • Music was affected by the revolution of 1917
            • 1918: classical symphony was performed (expressed ideas of the past in musical form)
              • This pleased the Soviet gvt but still felt constrained so left Russia again
        • Stravinsky
          • One of the masters of 20th century music
          • Lived to the age of 88
          • Known as a 'chameleonic' composer
          • Went through 3 or 4 different styles
          • Wrote an opera based on 16th century story
            • Liked the style he had researched
              • Incorporated it into his own works
          • Pulcinella
            • Lots of baroque techniques
              • Small orchestra
                • No clarinet or percussion
              • Baroque style texture
              • Baroque approach to the soli and tutti passages
              • Reference on the score to concertino and ripieno
        • Hindemith
        • Vaughan-Williams
          • Among the first to travel into the countryside to collect folk-songs and carols from singers
          • Editor of the English Hymnal
            • Composed several hymns that are now world-wide favourites
              • For all the saints
              • Come down O love divine
          • Notated songs and carols for future generations to enjoy
          • Deeply affected by WW1, and the loss of his composer friend Butterworth
          • Sustained a long and deep friendship with Gustav Holst (the planets)
          • Became a professor at the Royal College of Music in London
          • Extensive range of works
            • 9 symphonies
            • 5 operas
            • film music
            • ballet music
            • stage music
            • song cycles
            • church music
            • works for chorus
            • works for orchestra
      • Baroque/ Classical features
        • Devices
          • Alberti Bass
          • Imitation
          • Sequence
        • No description; 'meaningless'
        • Devoid of emotion
          • No description; 'meaningless'
        • Forms
          • Sonata
          • Concerto
          • Symphony
      • 20th Century features
        • Bitonality
        • Frequent changes of key
        • Unexpected Harmonies
        • Unexpected chord sequences
        • Deliberate 'wrong' notes
      • Other features
        • Echoes of earlier composers
        • Clarity of sound in solos
        • Regular rhythms
        • Clear textures
    • Impressionism
      • Composers
        • Debussy
          • Voiles
            • Ostinati and drones
              • Used on B flat in the left hand
              • Repeating patterns
              • Can be rhythmic or melodic
              • Usually short or fragmented
              • Held on note/notes or pattern of repeated notes
              • Always at the same pitch
              • Most often used are the first and fifth (tonic and dominant) degrees of the scale
            • Whole tone scales
              • Used in the right hand in the first bar
              • A scale of 6 notes where each interval is a tone
              • Used with the sustain pedal to allow natural harmonies to resonate
            • Pentatonic Scales
              • Used between the left and right hands in the section en animant
              • Debussy learned this from Javanese Gamelan music, whereby he copied the Slendro Scale
              • Uses the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 6th degrees of the scale only
            • Parallel Chords
              • Chords of the same interval used in direct sequence
              • Used for the colour of the sound
                • Breaks the rules of Classical and Baroque music
            • Melodic fragments
              • Avoids the long and expressive melody lines found in Classical and early Romantic music
            • Dissonant Chords
              • Used for 'colour'
              • Cluster chords
              • Augmented
              • Diminished
              • Extended chords
        • Ravel
      • Music which focuses on the atmosphere, conveying the moods and emotions surrounding a subject without building up a detailed picture
      • Features
        • Use of 'colour'
          • Timbre
            • Orchestration
            • Texture
            • Harmony
        • Chords
          • New combinations
        • Ambiguous tonality
        • Use of modes
        • Exotic scales
        • Extended harmonies
        • Parallel motions
          • 4ths and 5ths consecutively
            • Previously 'forbidden'
        • Extra musicality
        • Evocative and descriptive topics
    • Expressionism
      • Serialism
        • Composers
          • Arnold Schoenberg
            • Inventor of Serialism
            • Originally Romantic, evolved into Serialism later
              • Dissonance
              • Chromaticism
              • Atonality
            • 5 Orchestral Pieces
              • Peripetie
                • 'A sudden change of fortune'
                • Intense, dramatic and restless
                • Uses constantly changing music patterns
                • Based on a small number of motifs
                  • Transformed several different times
                • Each motif based on a hexachord
                  • A set of 6 pitches
                • Each motif communicates a different colour or mood
                • Composed in Rondo form
                • In the middle section, the motifs are developed
                  • Imitation
                  • Diminution
                  • Melodic inversion
                • In the final section the motifs are piled up on top of each other
                  • Canon
                  • Same motif heard in at least 2 different parts
                    • Out of step with each other
                  • Massive dynamic changes
                  • Hexachords used again
                  • Huge crescendo
                • Untitled
              • An atonal  Expressionistic piece
              • Written for a very large orchestra
                • There are three flutes, oboes, clarinets and bassoons (instead of the normal pairs) plus piccolo, cor anglais, clarinet in D, bass clarinet and contrabassoon.
                • There are extra horns, trumpets and trombones plus a tuba. The percussion section includes xylophone, cymbals, tam tam (a large gong) and bass drum.
                • Instruments required to play at the extreme of their registers
              • Schoenberg looking to create a specific set of tone colours or timbres
          • Anton Webern
            • 'Kinderstuck' (Child's play)
          • Alban Berg
          • Other composers sometimes associated with Expressionism
            • Krenek
              • the Second Symphony
            • Hindemith
              • Die Junge Magd
            • Stravinsky
              • Three Japanese Lyrics
            • Scriabin
              • Late piano sonatas
            • Bartok
              • Bluebeard's Castle
        • A technique which ensures that all 12 pitches in the chromatic scale are sounded an equal number of times in a piece of music
          • Prevents the emphasis of any notes
            • Uses tone rows
              • A way of ordering the 12 pitches
            • All 12 notes therefore given equal importance
              • Music avoids being an a key
          • Klangfarbenmelodie
            • Melody consisting of different instrumental timbres
            • Sharing the tone row across the different instruments in the ensemble
        • Dodecophony
          • A technique which ensures that all 12 pitches in the chromatic scale are sounded an equal number of times in a piece of music
            • Prevents the emphasis of any notes
              • Uses tone rows
                • A way of ordering the 12 pitches
              • All 12 notes therefore given equal importance
                • Music avoids being an a key
            • Klangfarbenmelodie
              • Melody consisting of different instrumental timbres
              • Sharing the tone row across the different instruments in the ensemble
          • 1. The set is ordered
          • 2. No note is repeated
          • 3. The set may be stated in any of its linear aspects
            • prime
            • inversion
            • retrograde
            • retrograde inversion
          • 4. The set, in any of its 4 transformations, may be started upon any degree of the semitonal scale
      • Features
        • High levels of dissonance
        • Extreme dynamic contrasts
        • Everchanging textures
        • Distorted melodies and harmonies
        • Angular melodies with wide leaps
      • The term  Expressionism was originally borrowed from visual art and literature. Artists created vivid pictures, distorting colours and shapes to make unrealistic images that suggested strong emotions. Expressionist composers poured intense emotional  expression  into their music exploring their subconscious mind.

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