Interregnum

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  • Interregnum 1649-1660
    • Rump Parliament 1649 - 1653
      • Created by Pride's Purge
        • Some MPs secluded, some arrested and others stayed away to be dissociated with Rump's actions
          • Expelled moderate MPs who wanted to continue negotiating with Charles
            • Brought back moderate MPs who had stayed away during execution = politically conservative now
        • 'Sitting on bayonets' - put into power by the army and therefore dependent on their approval
        • Made up of Republicans e.g. Haselrig and Bradshaw and Army Radicals
          • Brought back moderate MPs who had stayed away during execution = politically conservative now
      • Carry out the trial and execution of the King
        • Declare themselves able to pass laws without consent of the King or Lords
        • Create High Court of Justice to try him
          • Abolish House of Lords March 1649
        • Attempt to make it look legitimate - clerks and minute keepers
      • Religion
        • Failed to implement any radical legislation in order to appease moderate Presbyterians and Royalists
        • Agreed that non-law abiding sects must be crushed but couldn't agree on how to approach a religious settlement otherwise
          • Wanted godly so but everybody has different ideas of it
        • Blasphemy Act 1650 and Adultery Act 1650 to curb influence of Ranters, Quakers
        • Committee for the Propagation of the Gospel but no religious settlement
      • Legal Reform
        • Calls for reform of the law from radicals - e.g. wanted to implement Mosaic Law
        • Moderates want to maintain Common Law in the country
        • Little done to make the courts more accessible, apart from proceedings being held in English rather than Latin
      • Finance
        • Large deficit after Civil Wars
          • Sold crown lands and church property
          • Confiscated Royalist lands = resentment towards regime
          • Assessment tax and excise duty
      • Third Civil War
        • Uprisings in Ireland and Scotland - had made deals with Charles II to restore him to throne
          • Crushed easily by Oliver Cromwell and NMA
        • Royalism in Scotland - Montrose Rising, Treaty of Breda, Battle of Dunbar
        • Ormond Treaty, Massacres of Drogheda and Wexford
      • Dissolution of the Rump
        • Only meant as an interim body whilst  elections were prepared
        • NMA was worried that the new elections would allow same MPs back into seats
          • Discussions continued despite Cromwell postponing them = angry. Not fulfilling his ideal of a godly soc
          • OC personal attempt to grab power?
          • Forced into it by army discontent?
            • Policies favoured moderate stability = NMA no longer on side
      • Political Radicalism
        • Levellers - denounced Rump. Cromwell and Breton crushed them; arrested Lilburne
          • Imprisonment of leaders= stirred up mutiny e.g. Banbury amongst army but dispersed by personal persuasion of Cromwell and Ireton
          • Rump quelled army discontent by paying arrears - Levellers didn't have army support anymore = no threat
          • Arrested hundreds, executed ring leaders
    • Nominated Assembly 1653
      • Clash between moderates and radicals
        • Failed to meet expectations
          • Radicals propose end to Monthly Assessments - attack on army
            • Radicals push through abolition of tithes, organised = upset moderates
        • Radicals want no tithes, no national church, mosaic law
        • Moderates want toleration, national church, tithes, common law
      • Dissolution 1653
        • Moderates meet alone December 1653, vote to give power back to OC and abdicate
      • Motives
        • Puppet of Army?
        • Genuine experiment in Godly rule?
        • OC uses it to take power?
    • The Protectorate 1653- 1659
      • Richard Cromwell 1659
        • Legacy of OC
          • No religious settlement, por finances, politically unstable, all groups discontent
          • Power vacuum after OCs death, RC not army man, ruling under HPA - garnered opp in 2nd sess of 2nd PP
        • Upsets army by trying to get rid of Council of Officers = army calls for his removal
      • Oliver Cromwell 1653-1658
        • Under HP&A
          • New Cromwellians want a civilian gov
            • alternate constitutionto I of G, endorsed by parl, sought to limit OC by kingship
            • Return to old constitution, upper house, privy council, kingship
            • Refuses kingship = trying to reach settlement or extend powers
          • Opposition - army and Republicans don't like it
          • Excluded members return 2ndSess 2nd PP
            • Republicans attack HPA, lack of support in lower house
              • Gather support from army, religious radicals - looks like attack on OC
                • OC dissolves parl to prevent consideringof Republican petition. Diest Sept 1658
              • Opposition - army and Republicans don't like it
        • Under I of G
          • Aims of healing and settling country through godly reformation and political stability
          • Ordinances- Triers and Ejectors
          • Godly reformation impeded by lack of finance, held up by Council of State
          • Religious Toleration undermined stability e.g. Naylor Case, fear of social collapse, ministers can't enforce order - no legal compulsion
          • OC tolerant of Catholics, secretly lets Jews reenter, hard to define 'godly' faith
          • Conservative Protectorate Parliament always threatens liberty
          • I of G drawn up by Lambert, not endorsed by parliament, 30,000 permanent army, questionable legitimacy - imposed by military
            • 1st PP Commonwealthsmen attacked legitimacy of I of G
              • Oath of Allegiance - 100 MPs excluded
            • Fear of military dictatorship- heavy army representation, upsets Commonwealthsmen. Gentry fear disorder
          • Reorganising of constituencies = wider representation = more opp to OC in 1stPP
          • Major-Generals - DecimationTax to maintain them, interferred with daily life
            • Resentment, lower social class and not local
            • Centralisation attempt failed - didn't vote to renew DecimationTax
    • The Restoration 1658-1660
      • The Restored Rump
        • Divisions between army and Rump
          • Failed to enforce settlement, didn't restrict radicals - people want stability
            • tried to use radicals to curb army influence = Rump seems radical
            • Lambert crushes Booths uprising August 1659- gives them power
              • Haselrig calls to arrest leaders of army = dissolves Rump
      • The Committee of Safety
        • Guise of authority from Army but internal divisions
          • Not all agree w/ Rump's dissolution e.g. Monck
            • Monck marches to London, Navy declares against gov, Lambert fails to crush Monck's forces
              • Monck dismisses Lambert, Fleetwood, recalls Rump
      • The Restored Long Parliament
        • Monck brings back secluded MPs - Republicans no longer have power
          • Questioned legitimacy of Rump and Charles' execution
            • Restorationmuch more likely but Monck presents self as moderate
      • The Convention Parliament
        • Army decline to challenge Monck, new elections called at time of Charles' publishing of Treaty of Breda
          • Over 60 monarchists took seats and considered terms of Charles' restoration 1660
          • Treaty of Breda - published from Holland, promised to pay arrears, religious toleration, general pardon, leniency, cooperation with Parliament
            • Satisfies all groups - he is a figure of stability
  • Only 12 of 140 radicals e.g. Fifth Monarchists but their fanaticism = clashes
    • Colonel Harrison
    • Clash between moderates and radicals
      • Failed to meet expectations
        • Radicals propose end to Monthly Assessments - attack on army
          • Radicals push through abolition of tithes, organised = upset moderates
      • Radicals want no tithes, no national church, mosaic law
      • Moderates want toleration, national church, tithes, common law

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