International Pollution Agreements

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  • International Agreements
    • Kyoto Protocol 1997; Over 150 countries signed, not USA, reduce carbon emissions below 1990 levels by 5% between 2008 and 2012, legally binding in 2005. Bali, 2007, new targets, unsuccessful, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009 , UN Climate Conference
      • EU countries show an 8% reduction. USA agreed to Bali, Rail, 2007
    • Montreal Protocol 1987: Aim of this agreement to phase out use of CFCs, in aerosols, fridges, air conditioning units by 2000. Damage ozone layer in atmosphere, harmful UV rays, success.
    • Cancun Climate change conference 2010. Deep cuts in emissions, limit global average temperature rise to 2 degrees celsius. Conservation, mitigation, management of forests, enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. New institutions and processes. Committment of developed countries to provide money.
    • Denmark 2009, finalise new targets, 40,000 people, improved Kyoto, limit max global temp 2 degrees celsius, developed countries fund,
    • Durban conference
      • Cut world emissions, low carbon economy, legally binding by 2015, covering major emitters, India and China clashed with EU. Protect forests, widen global markets,
        • $100 billion fund to help poorer countries move to green economy
        • Scientists and environmental groups say more urgency is needed. Green climate fund. National Adaptation Plans - extreme weather. widen global markets, Canada, Russia and Japan dropped out of Kyoto, emissions offset instrument called CERS. Reward developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.


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