Internal Factors That Effect Achievement

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    • The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
      • Outline
        • 1. Teacher labels pupil on a spectrum of intelligence  and makes prediction.
        • 2. The teacher treats the pupil accordingly to their prediction.
        • 3. The pupil internalizes the teacher's expectation and the prediction comes true.
      • Teachers expectations
        • Teachers expectations based on the results of an IQ test.
        • Can produce under-achievement if children are predicted failure.
      • Streaming
        • Separating and grouping children into ability.
        • Becker showed working class are not always seen as intelligent.
        • Once streamed it is hard to progress.
        • Middle class benifit as they are more likely to be put in higher streams.
    • Marketisation and Selection Policies
      • Competition and Selection
      • An Image to Attract Middle Class
      • Educational Triage
    • Labelling
      • Primary Schools
        • Ray Rist
          • 1. Found children in a kindergarten were separated by class and appearance.
          • 2. Those who were middle class and neat were labelled as fast learners and given more opportunities.
        • Sharp and Green
          • 1. Viewed middle class children as ready to learn before working class.
      • Secondary Schools
        • Howard Becker
          • 2. Found children were judged on how closely they fitted the image of an 'ideal pupil'.
          • 1. Interviewed 60 high Chicago high school teachers.
          • 3. Teachers found working class as underachievers and middle class as high achievers.
        • Cicourel and Kitsuse
          • 1. Studied american counselors.
          • 2. Found labelling or working class students effects them.
          • 3. Found inconsistencies in the way counselors assessed students.
          • 4. Children judged largely on their race or class - middle class students were set higher expectations.
      • High and Low Status Knowledge
        • A stream pupils were given abstract theoretical knowledge.
        • C stream students were given descriptive common sense knowledge which they could relate to everyday life.
      • Limitations
    • Pupil Sub-Cultures
      • Pro-School
      • Anti-School
      • Abolishing Streaming
      • Colin Lacy's Concepts
      • Untitled


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