Internal factors gender 

  • Created by: Daisymac
  • Created on: 16-01-19 16:43
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  • Internal factors gender
    • Equal opportunities policy
      • Policymakers are more aware of gender issues and teachers are more sensitive to the need to avoid stereotyping
      • WISE- women into science and technology,GIST- girl into science and technology
        • encouraged girls to persue carrers in non traditional areas
      • Female scientists have visted schools acting as role models
      • Introduction of national curriculum in 1988 meant boys and girls did the same subjects
      • Boaler 1998 sees the impact of equal opportunities polices are a key reason for changes in girls achievement
    • Positive role models in schools
      • Increase in the proportion of female teachers and heads
      • These female teachers have been successfully educated
    • Gcse and Coursework
      • Gorard 2005 found that the gender gap in achievement was constant from 1975 until 1989, when it increased sharply--> introduction if GCSES and coursework
      • Mitsos and Browne 1998 conclude girls are more successful in coursework as they are more conscientious and organised.
      • increase in oral exams benefits girls as they have better developed language skills
      • Sociologists argue that these characterists are a result of early gender socialisation, where girls are encouraged to be more tidy and patient
      • Elwood 2005 argues that although coursework has some influence, it doesn't have as much influence as the final exam
    • Teacher attention
      • French 1993 they found that boys recieved more reprimands
      • Francis 20012 argued that while boys got more attention , they were disciplined more harshly and felt picked on more
      • Swann 1998 also found gender differences in communication styles as boys dominate whole class discussion whilst girls preferred pair work
      • May explain why teachers respond more positively to girls, whom they see as cooperative, than boys who are seen as disruptive
    • Challenging stereotypes
      • Research in the 70s and 80s found that reading schemes portrayed women mainly as housewifes and scared of science
      • Weiner 1995 argues that since the 80s, teachers have challenged these stereotypes and sexist images have been removed from reading materials
    • Selection and league tables
      • Jackson 1998 notes the introduction of exam league tables has improved opportunities for girls as high achieving girls are attractive to schools
      • Slee 1998 argues that boys are less attractive to schools as they are more likely to suffer from behavioural issues and 4 times more likely to be excluded
    • Two views of girls achievemnet
      • Liberal feminists: celebrate progress made so far but believe further progress could be made by continuing the development of equal opportunity policies, encouraging role models and overcoming sexist attitudes
      • Radical feminists: While they recognise girls are achieveing more, they emphasis that the system remains patriarchal and there is stills secual harassment, and women are unrepresented in some areas of the curriculum

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