Sociology- Internal factors class

  • Created by: Daisymac
  • Created on: 18-01-19 17:06
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  • Internal factors
    • Labelling
      • Attaching a meaning or definition to them.
      • Becker 1971- 60 chicago high school teachers, found they judged pupils according to how closely they fitted the image of the ideal pupil
        • MC= closest to to the ideal pupil
      • Hemple-Jorgensen 2009 found that the ideal pupil varied in different schools
        • In mostly wc Aspen primary school, where staff said discipline was a problem, the ideal pupil was quiet, passive and obedient
        • Mainly MC rowan primary school had very few discipline problems and the ideal pupil has defined in terms of personality and academic ability
      • Dunne and Gazeley 2008 argue that 'schools persistently produce working class underachievement' because of teachers labels. From interviews, they found that they believed wc parents were uninterested in their children's education
      • Rist 1970 study of American Kindergarten show that teachers used info from their home background to put them in seating plans . MC=Tigers, fast learns clean appearance WC= clowns, lower level books and fewer opportunites
    • Self fulfilling prophecy
      • 1. Teacher labels pupil   2. Teacher treats pupil accordingly     3. Pupil internalises teacher's expectations , which becomes part of their self image
      • Rosenthal and Jacobsen 1968 study of California primary school. Told school they had a test to identify spurters, but was actually an IQ test. Researchers tested pupils and randomly selected 20% and identified them as spurters. A year later 47% of the spurters made significant progress
    • Streaming
      • Separating children into different ability groups.
      • Once streamed, it is hard ti move up to a higher stream--> Self fulfilling prophecy
      • Douglas found that children place in a low stream at age 8 had suffered a decline in iq by 11
      • Gillborne and youdell 2001- shows how teachers use the stereotypical notion of ability to stream pupils. Found students were likely to see WC students as having less ability, and so are placed in lower streams and entered for foundation papers.
        • Link streaming to publishing league tables. Publishing league tables produce an A-C economy, in which schools ration their time on the borderline students
        • Educational triage -Those that will pass anyway, those with potential and hopeless cases. As teachers hold the stereotypical view that wc students lack ability, they are likely to be labelled as hopeless cases--> SFP
      • Ball 1981 study of beachside comprehensive - mixed ability groups- while the polarisation was largely removed, differentiation continued through positive labelling
    • Pupil subcultures
      • Lacey 1970 - Polarisation and differentiation
        • Differentiation- The process of teachers categorising pupils accordingly to how they perceive their ability. High streams= high status
        • Polarisation- The process in which pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of two extremes.
      • Pro school subculture- Pupils placed in high streams tend to stay committed to the schools values. Gain statues through academic success
      • Anti-school subculture- Those placed in low streams lack self esteem and so gain status by forming an anti school subculture.
      • Hargreaves 1967- From the point of the education system , boys in the lower steams were triple failures= failed 11+, placed in lower sets and labelled as worthless louts
      • Variety of pupil responses-  Woods 1979---> Ingratiation= Teachers pet   Ritualism= Staying out of trouble            retreatism= daydreaming and mucking about              rebellion= outright rejection of everything school stands for
        • Furlong 1984 many pupils are set to just one response
    • Criticisms of labelling theory
      • Determinism
      • Marxists criticise labelling theory for ignoring the wider structures of power within which labelling takes place. Blames teachers for labelling but fails to explain why they do so

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