B2 Interdependene

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  • Independence
    • Competition
      • Similar organisms living in the same habitat compete with each other for resources
        • If they are members of the same species they will also compete with each other for mates so they can breed
      • An ecological niche describes the habitat that an organism lives in and also its role in the habitat. For example, ladybirds live on trees and eat greenfly
      • Organisms that share similar niches are more likely to compete, as they require the same resources
      • Competition can be intraspecific or interspecific
        • Intersepcific is between organisms of different species
        • Intraspecific is between organisms of the same species and is likely to be more significant as the organisms share more similarities and so need the same resources
    • Predator-prey relationships
      • The predator peaks occur soon after the prey peaks. This is because it takes a little while for the increased supply of food to allow more predators to survive and reproduce
    • Parasitism and mutualism
      • As well as competing with each other or eating each other, organisms of different species can also be dependent on each other in other ways.
      • Parasites feed on or in another living organism called the host
      • The host suffers as a result of the relationship
      • Sometimes both organisms benefit from their relationship, this is called mutualism
        • Pea plants and certain types of bacteria benefit from mutualism. Pea plants are legumes with structures on the roots called nodules. In these nodules live nitrogen-fixing bcteria
          • The bacteria turn nitrogen into nitrogen-containing chemicals and give some to the pea
          • The pea plant gives the bacteria some sugars that have been produced by photosynthesis
  • Both predator and prey show cyclical changes in their numbers, because:
    • When there are lots of prey, more predators survive and so their numbers increase
    • More predators starve and so their numbers drop
    • Predator-prey relationships
      • The predator peaks occur soon after the prey peaks. This is because it takes a little while for the increased supply of food to allow more predators to survive and reproduce

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